Atoms First General Chemistry
Atoms First General Chemistry

Atoms First General Chemistry

Lead Author(s): Greg Domski

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This book helps students understand atoms, ions, and molecules conceptually before they encounter the topics of stoichiometry, kinetics, and thermodynamics.

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Atoms First Chemistry engages students with all different learning styles, offering plentiful visuals, instructional videos and interactive simulations.
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Include a comprehensive test bank with 50+ questions per chapter.

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Top Hat

Greg Domski, et.al, “Atoms First General Chemistry”, Only One Edition needed

McGraw-Hill

Julia Burdge, et.al, Chemistry: Atoms First, 2nd Edition

Nelson Education

Zumdahl, et al, Chemistry: An Atoms First Approach

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Always up-to-date content, constantly revised by community of professors

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Ability to revise, adjust and adapt content to meet needs of course and instructor

Built-in interactive assessment questions

Assessment questions with feedback embedded throughout textbook

All-in-one Platform

Access to additional questions, test banks, and slides available within one platform

Pricing

Average price of textbook across most common format

Top Hat

Greg Domski, et.al, “Atoms First General Chemistry”, Only One Edition needed

Up to 40-60% more affordable

Lifetime access on any device

McGraw-Hill

Julia Burdge, et.al, Chemistry: Atoms First, 2nd Edition

$106.20

E-book

Nelson Education

Zumdahl, et al, Chemistry: An Atoms First Approach

$65.99

E-book

Always up-to-date content, constantly revised by community of professors

Constantly revised and updated by a community of professors with the latest content

Top Hat

Greg Domski, et.al, “Atoms First General Chemistry”, Only One Edition needed

McGraw-Hill

Julia Burdge, et.al, Chemistry: Atoms First, 2nd Edition

Nelson Education

Zumdahl, et al, Chemistry: An Atoms First Approach

In-book Interactivity

Includes embedded multi-media files and integrated software to enhance visual presentation of concepts directly in textbook

Top Hat

Greg Domski, et.al, “Atoms First General Chemistry”, Only One Edition needed

McGraw-Hill

Julia Burdge, et.al, Chemistry: Atoms First, 2nd Edition


Nelson Education

Zumdahl, et al, Chemistry: An Atoms First Approach

Customizable

Ability to revise, adjust and adapt content to meet needs of course and instructor

Top Hat

Greg Domski, et.al, “Atoms First General Chemistry”, Only One Edition needed

McGraw-Hill

Julia Burdge, et.al, Chemistry: Atoms First, 2nd Edition

Nelson Education

Zumdahl, et al, Chemistry: An Atoms First Approach


All-in-one Platform

Access to additional questions, test banks, and slides available within one platform

Top Hat

Greg Domski, et.al, “Atoms First General Chemistry”, Only One Edition needed

McGraw-Hill

Julia Burdge, et.al, Chemistry: Atoms First, 2nd Edition

Nelson Education

Zumdahl, et al, Chemistry: An Atoms First Approach

About this textbook

Lead Authors

Greg Domski, Ph.DAugustana College, Illinois

Greg Domski received his M.S (2005) and Ph.D (2008) in Inorganic chemistry from Cornell University, Ithaca, NY. He is currently an Associate Professor of Chemistry at Augustana College in Illinois, teaching General, Organic and Inorganic chemistry. His research interest include the development of novel binuclear donor-functionalized N-heterocyclic carbene transition metal complexes for transfer hydrogenation catalysis and the development of transition metal-based olefin polymerization catalysts. Greg also works closely with his students in developing their research and presenting their findings.

Contributing Authors

Sam AlvaradoUniversity of Wisconsin – River Falls

Ginger ReddNorth Carolina A&T State University

Amanda WilmsmeyerAugustana College

Henry KurtzUniversity of Memphis

Brad WileOhio Northern University

Explore this textbook

Read the fully unlocked textbook below, and if you’re interested in learning more, get in touch to see how you can use this textbook in your course today.

Version 2.1.0

Table of Contents

1. Matter and Energy

1.1 What is Chemistry?
1.2 The Properties and Transformations of Matter
     1.2.1 Matter and Its States
     1.2.2 The Composition of Matter
     1.2.3 The Properties and Changes of Matter
1.3 The Scientific Method
1.4 The Units of Measurement
1.5 Review of Scientific Notation
1.6 Accuracy and Error
1.7 Significant Figures: A Measure of Precision
1.8 Problem-Solving: Dimensional Analysis
Tips for Dimensional Analysis
1.9 Counting Atoms: The Concept of the Mole
1.9.1 Avogadro’s Number
Tips for Converting Between Moles and the Number of Atoms
1.10 Energy and Chemistry
     1.10.1 Electrostatic Potential Energy
     1.10.2 Thermal Energy and Chemical Bonds
     1.10.3 Energy and Light
Case Study: Significant Figures
Summary

2. Atoms, Ions, and Molecules

2.1 Introduction
2.2 Early Atomic Theory
2.3 J.J. Thomson and the Electron
2.4 Rutherford’s Gold Foil Experiment and the Nuclear Model of the Atom
2.5 Atomic Number
Tips About Atomic Numbers
2.6 Ions
Tips for Ion Calculations
2.7 Atomic Mass and Isotopes
Tips for Solving Isotope Problems
2.8 Introduction to the Periodic Table
2.9 Counting Atoms, Ions, and Molecules: The Concept of the Mole
Tips for Working with Molar Masses
2.10 Compounds and Molecules
2.11 Chemical Formulas
2.12 Ionic and Covalent Compounds
2.13 Nomenclature for Simple Compounds
     2.13.1 Binary Compounds Involving a Metal and a Nonmetal
     2.13.2 Ionic Compounds Involving a Transition Metal
     2.13.3 Ionic Compounds Involving Polyatomic Ions
     2.13.4 Hydrated Ionic Compounds
2.14 Formulas and Names of Covalent Compounds
     2.14.1 Binary Compounds Involving a Nonmetal with a Nonmetal
     2.14.2 Naming Acids
     2.14.3 Binary Acids
     2.14.4 Oxoacids
     2.14.5 Common Names of Select Covalent Compounds
     2.14.6 Organic Examples: Alkanes
2.15 Molar Mass of Compounds
Tips for Converting Between Mass, Moles and the Number of Atoms/Molecules
Case Study: Scanning Tunneling Microscopy
Summary

3. Electronic Structure of the Atom

3.1 Introduction: The Transition Away from Classical Mechanics
3.2 Electromagnetic Radiation
Tips for Converting Between Wavelength and Frequency
3.3 The Electromagnetic Spectrum
Tips for Electromagnetic Spectrum Problems
3.4 Challenges to Classical Physics
     3.4.1 Atomic Emission Spectra
     Tips for Rydberg Equation Problems
     3.4.2 Planck and Blackbody Radiation
     Tips for Planck's Equation Problems
     3.4.3 Hertz, Einstein, and the Photoelectric Effect
     Tips for Photoelectric Effect Problems
     3.4.4 Photoemission Revisited: The Bohr Model of the Atom
     Tips for Bohr's Model Problems
     3.4.5 The de Broglie Wavelength and the Wave–Particle Duality of Matter
     Tips for de Broglie Wavelength Problems
     3.4.6 Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle
     Tips for Heisenberg's Uncertainty Problems
     Case Study: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
3.5 Schrödinger, Born, and Atomic Orbital Wavefunctions
     3.5.1 Radial Wavefunctions
     3.5.1A Radial Distribution Plots
     3.5.2 Angular Wavefunctions
3.6 Quantum Numbers
     3.6.1 The Principal Quantum Number
     3.6.2 The Orbital Angular Momentum Quantum Number
     Tips for Quantum Numbers
     3.6.2A Shapes of Atomic Orbitals
     3.6.3 The Magnetic Quantum Number
     3.6.4 The Spin Quantum Number
3.7 Quantum Mechanics and Periodicity
     3.7.1 Electron Configuration
     3.7.1A The Aufbau Principle, Pauli Exclusion Principle, and Hund’s Rule
     Tips for Determining Ground State Electron Configurations
     3.7.1B Ground-State Configurations of Monatomic Ions
     3.7.1C Prediction of Magnetic Behavior
     3.7.2 Atomic and Ionic Size
     3.7.3 Ionization Energy
     3.7.4 Electron Affinity
     3.4.5 Chemical Behavior and Properties
     Tips for Oxidation States
     Case Study: Photo-Electron Spectroscopy
Summary

4. Basic Chemical Bonding

4.1  Introduction
4.2  Lewis Dot Structure of Atoms
4.3 Lewis Structures for Ionic Compounds
4.4 Drawing Lewis Structures for Molecular Compounds
     4.4.1 Binary Compounds
     4.4.2 Electronegativity, Bond Polarity, and Electrostatic Potential Diagrams
     4.4.3 Lewis Structures of Polyatomic Molecules and Ions
     Tips for Drawing Lewis Structures
4.5 Resonance Structures and Formal Charges
4.6 Putting it all Together: Drawing the Best Lewis Structure from a Chemical Formula
Case Study: Television Explosions and Lewis Structures
4.7 Special Topic: Organic Compounds
Summary

5. Chemical Bonding Theories

5.1  Introduction
5.2 Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) Theory
5.3 The Base Electron Domain Geometries and Steric Number
     5.3.1 Steric Numbers 2–4
     5.3.2 Steric Numbers 5 and 6
5.4 The Effect of Lone Pairs on the Central Atom: Molecular Geometries
     5.4.1 Steric Number = 4
     5.4.2  Steric Number = 5
     5.4.3 Steric Number = 6
     Tips for Determining Molecular Geometry
5.5 Predicting Molecular Polarity
Tips for Determining Polarity
5.6 Valence Bond Theory: Hybridization of Atomic Orbitals
     5.6.1 sp3 Hybridization
     Tips for Determining Hybridization State
     5.6.2 sp2 Hybridization
     5.6.3  sp Hybridization
     5.6.3A Orbital Overlap and Bond Strength
     5.6.4 sp3d and sp3d2 Hybridization
5.7 Molecular Orbital Theory: A Delocalized Bonding Model
     5.7.1 Linear Combination of Atomic Orbitals
     Tips for Molecular Orbital Energy Level Diagrams
     5.7.2 Heteronuclear Diatomic Molecules
     5.7.3 Molecular Orbitals for Molecules of Three or More Atoms
     5.7.3A Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
     5.7.3B Water (H2O)
     5.7.3C Ammonia (NH3)
5.8 Electronic Structure of Solids: Band Theory
     5.8.1 Introduction to Band Theory
     5.8.2 Band Theory of Solids
     5.8.2A Insulators
     5.8.2.B Semiconductors
     Case Study: Dyes and Sunscreens
Summary

6. Gases

6.1 Introduction
6.2 Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases
     6.2.1 Physical Properties of Gases, Liquids, and Solids
     6.2.2 Postulates of Kinetic Molecular Theory
     6.2.3 Molecular Velocities
     Tips for Molecular Velocity Problems
     6.2.4 Kinetic Energy of Gases
     6.2.5 Mean Free Path
6.3 Gas Laws Explained Using Kinetic Molecular Theory
     6.3.1 Molecular Basis of Gas Pressure
     6.3.2 Molecular Basis of Boyle’s Law
     6.3.3 Molecular Basis of Charles’s Law
     6.3.4 Combined Gas Law
     6.3.5 Molecular Basis of Avogadro’s Law
     6.3.6 Standard Temperature and Pressure (STP) and Standard Molar Volume
     6.3.7 Ideal Gas Law
     Tips for Gas Law Problems
     6.3.8 Density of Gases
     6.3.9 Molecular Basis of Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures
     6.3.10 Calculations Involving Mole Fractions
6.4 Diffusion and Effusion of Gases: Graham’s Law
6.5 Gas Behavior at High Pressure and Low Temperature
     6.5.1 The van der Waals Equation
6.6 Gas Behavior at High Pressure and High Temperature: Supercritical Fluids
Case Study: High- and Low-Pressure Systems
Summary

7. Liquids, Solids, and Intermolecular Forces

7.1 Introduction
7.2 Intermolecular Forces
     7.2.1 Bonding vs. Intermolecular Forces
     Tip for Identifying Intermolecular Forces
     7.2.2 London Dispersion Forces
     7.2.3 Dipole–Dipole
     7.2.4 Hydrogen Bonding
     7.2.5 Ion–Dipole
     7.2.6 Properties affected by Intermolecular Forces
7.3 Properties of Liquids
     7.3.1 Viscosity and Surface Tension
     Case Study 1: Lab-on-a-Chip
     7.3.2 Vapor Pressure and Boiling Point
        7.3.2.1 An Introduction to Dynamic Equilibria
        7.3.2.2 Temperature Dependence of Vapor Pressure: the Clausius–Clapeyron Equation
7.4 Phase Changes
     7.4.1 Energy of Phase Changes
7.5 Phase Diagram
7.6 Solids
     7.6.1 Structure
        7.6.1.1 The Crystal Lattice and Unit Cells
        7.6.1.2 Common Unit Cells
Summary

8. Solutions

8.1 Introduction
     8.1.1 Types of Mixtures
     8.1.2 Driving Forces - Why do Solutions Form?
     Case Study: Milk and Spicy Foods
8.2 Solubility of Solutes in a Solvent
     8.2.1 Dilute, Saturated, and Supersaturated Solutions
     8.2.2 The Effect of Temperature
        8.2.2.1 Solubility of Solids/Liquids
        8.2.2.2 Solubility of Gases
     8.2.3 The Effect of Pressure
        8.2.3.1 Solubility of Solids/Liquids
        8.2.3.2 Solubility of Gases: Henry’s Law
     Case Study: Ocean Acidification
8.3 Solution Concentration
     8.3.1 Parts by Mass
     8.3.2 Parts by Volume
     8.3.3 Mole Percent
     8.3.4 Molarity
     8.3.5 Molality
8.4 Conversions Between Concentration Units
Tips for Converting Between Molarity and Molality
Tips for Dilution Calculations
8.5 Colligative Properties of Solutions Containing a Non-volatile Solute
     8.5.1 Vapor Pressure Lowering: Raoult’s Law
     8.5.2 Freezing Point Depression and Boiling Point Elevation
     Tips for Freezing Point Depression and Boiling Point Elevation Problems
     Case Study: The Perfect Ice Cream
     8.5.3 Osmotic Pressure
     Case Study: Gone Fishing
     8.5.4 Strong Electrolyte Solutions
8.6 Colloidal Suspensions
8.7 Surfactants
Summary

9. Stoichiometry

Learning Objectives
9.1 Introduction
9.2 The Chemical Equation and Law of Conservation of Mass
9.3 Reaction Stoichiometry
     9.3.1 Mole-to-Mole Conversions
     Tips for Stoichiometry Problems:
     9.3.2 Mass-to-Mass Conversions
9.4 The Limiting Reactant
Tips for Limiting Reactant Problems
9.5 The Percent Yield
​9.6 Mass Percent Composition and Chemical Subscripts
9.7 Determination of Empirical Formulas and Molecular Formulas
Tips for Determining an Empirical Formula
Tips for Determining a Molecular Formula
     9.7.1 Determining Empirical Formulas from Combustion Data
     Case Study: Mass Spectrometry
Summary

10. Reactions in Aqueous Solutions

10.1 Introduction
10.2 Solubility
10.3 Precipitation Reactions
Representing Aqueous Reactions
10.4 Acid–Base Neutralization Reactions
     10.4.1 Gas-Forming Reactions
10.5 Electron Transfer Reactions
     10.5.1 Oxidation States
     Tips for Assigning Oxidation States:
     10.5.2 Identifying Oxidizing and Reducing Agents
10.6 Solution Stoichiometry
     10.6.1 Titrations
     Tips for Titration Calculations
     Case Study: Using Acids at Home for Cleaning
Summary

11. Thermochemistry

11.1 Introduction: Energy, Changes, and State Functions
11.2 Different Types of Energy and Their Units
11.3 Heat and Work: Energy Transfer Between a System and Its Surroundings
11.4 The First Law of Thermodynamics
11.5 Calculation of Pressure–Volume Work
11.6 Calculation of Heat
     11.6.1 Constant Volume (Bomb) Calorimetry
     Tips for Bomb Calorimeter Problems
     11.6.2 Constant Pressure (Coffee Cup) Calorimetry: An Introduction to Enthalpy
     Tips for Constant Pressure Calorimetry Problems
11.7 Additional Enthalpy Calculations
​     11.7.1 Hess' Law
     11.7.2 Standard Molar Enthalpies of Formation and Hess’ Law
     Tips for Determining the Enthalpy Change Using ΔHoformation Data
     11.7.3 Bond Dissociation Enthalpies
     11.7.4 Thermochemistry of Solids: the Born–Haber Cycle and the Enthalpy of Crystal Lattice Formation
     ​Tips for Lattice Enthalpy Problems
    11.7.5 Thermochemistry of Phase Changes
       11.7.5.1 Enthalpies of Phase Changes
       11.7.5.2 Heating and Cooling Curves
       11.7.5.3 Heat Calculations Involving Heating and Cooling Curves
    Tips for Calculations with Heating/Cooling Curves
11.8 Comparing ΔU with ΔH
Summary

12. Chemical Kinetics

12.1 Introduction
12.2 Collision Theory of Reaction Rates
Tips for Reading Activation Energy Diagrams
12.3 Average and Instantaneous Reaction Rates of Change
Tips about the Average Rate of Change Equation
12.4 Rate Laws
Tips for Rate Law Problems
12.5 Kinetics Experiments
     12.5.1 The Method of Initial Rates
     Tips for the Method of Initial Rates
     12.5.2 Integrated Rate Laws
        12.5.2.1 The Zeroth-Order Integrated Rate Law
        12.5.2.2 The First-Order Integrated Rate Law
        12.5.2.3 The Second Order Integrated Rate Law
        Tips for Integrated Rate Laws
12.6 Reaction Mechanisms
     12.6.1 Mechanism and Kinetics of a Two-Step Reaction
     12.6.2 Mechanisms Involving a Fast, Reversible Elementary Step
     Tips about Reaction Mechanisms
12.7 Additional Factors Influencing Reaction Rate
     12.7.1 Reaction Rates and Temperature
     12.7.2 Reaction Rate and Surface Area
     12.7.3 Reaction Rate and Catalysts
Tips for the Arrhenius Equation
Case Study: Enzymes in Action - Hexokinase
Summary

13. Chemical Equilibrium

13.1 Introduction: Chemical Equilibrium is a Dynamic Process
13.2 The Equilibrium Constant K
     13.2.1 Introduction
     Tips about Equilibrium Constants
     13.2.2 The Significance of the Magnitude of K
     13.2.3 Writing the Expression for K of Homogeneous Equilibria
     13.2.4 Writing the Expression for K of Heterogeneous Equilibria
     Tips about Heterogeneous Equilibria
     13.2.5 Factors Affecting K
        13.2.5.1 Stoichiometry
        13.2.5.2 The Reverse Reaction
        13.2.5.3 A Net Reaction Derived from Elementary Steps
        Tips for Combining Chemical Reactions
13.3 In Which Direction Will A Reaction Proceed?
     13.3.1 Quantitative Prediction: The Reaction Quotient
     13.3.2 Le Châtelier’s Principle
     Tips for Temperature and Volume Changes
13.4 Chemical Equilibrium Calculations
     13.4.1 ICE Tables
     13.4.2 The Method of Successive Approximations
     13.4.3 Additional Examples
Tips for ICE tables
Case Study: Oxygen Transport in Blood
Summary

14. Acids and Bases

14.1 Introduction
14.2. The Arrhenius Definition of Acids and Bases
14.3 Brønsted–Lowry Acids and Bases
     14.3.1 Definitions
     14.3.2 The Amphiprotic Nature of Water and Amphoteric Oxides
14.4 Lewis Acids and Bases
14.5 Acid and Base Strength
     14.5.1 Strong and Weak Acids
     14.5.2 Strong and Weak Bases
     Tips for Identifying Acids and Bases
14.6 Quantifying Acidity: The pH Scale
Tips for Working with the pH Scale
14.7 Quantifying Acid and Base Strength: Ka and Kb
     14.7.1 The Acid-Ionization Constant, Ka
        14.7.1.1 Definitions
        Tips for Ka
     14.7.2 The Base-Ionization Constant
        14.7.2.1 Definitions
        Tips for Kb
14.8 Structural Factors Affecting Acidity
     14.8.1 Periodicity
     ​14.8.2 The Electron-Withdrawing Inductive Effect in Oxoacids and Carboxylic Acids
        14.8.2.1 Oxoacids
        14.8.2.2 Carboxylic Acids
14.9 Calculating pH and pOH of Weak Acid and Weak Base Solutions
     14.9.1 Problem Solving Using ICE Tables for Weak Acids
        14.9.1.1 Percent Deprotonation
        Tips for ICE Tables for Weak Acids
     14.9.2 Problem Solving Using ICE Tables for Weak Bases
     Tips about ICE Tables for Weak Bases
        14.9.2.1 Percent Protonation
14.10  The Conjugate Acid–Base Pair
Tips for Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs
14.11  Salt Solutions
     14.11.1 Qualitative Prediction of Acidity and Basicity
     14.11.2 Aqueous Metal Cations
        14.11.2.1 Acidic Strength Dependence on Metal Cation Charge
        14.11.2.2 Acidic Strength Dependence on Metal Cation Size
        14.11.2.3 Acidic Strength Dependence on Electronegativity of the Metal
     14.11.3 pH Calculations of Salt Solutions
     Tips for Salt Solutions
14.12 Polyprotic Acids
     14.12.1 Stepwise Dissociation
     14.12.2 The Effect of Charge on Acid Strength
     14.12.3  Problem Solving Using ICE Tables for Weak Polyprotic Acids
     Tips for Polyprotic Acid Problems
      14.12.4 Salts of Polyprotic Acids
Case Study: Drain Cleaners
Summary

15. Aqueous Equilibria

15.1 Introduction
15.2 Acid–Base Neutralization Reactions
General Tips for Working with Aqueous Equilibria Problems
15.3 Buffers
     15.3.1 Definition
     15.3.2 The Circulatory System: Our Body’s Natural Buffering System
        15.3.2.1 Equilibria in our Blood
        15.3.2.2 Acidosis, Alkalosis, and Treatment
     15.3.3 pH Calculations Involving Buffers
        15.3.3.1 Using ICE Tables
        15.3.3.2 The Henderson–Hasselbalch Equation
        15.3.3.3 Buffering Capacity
     15.3.4 Designing A Buffering System
     Tips for Buffer Problems
15.4 Titration Curves
     15.4.1 Introduction
        15.4.1.1 Experimental Setup
        15.4.1.2 Indicator Selection
     15.4.2 Strong Acid–Base Titrations
     15.4.3 Weak Acid Titrated by a Strong Base: The Four Regions
     15.4.4 Weak Base Titrated by a Strong Acid: The Four Regions
     15.4.5 Weak Polyprotic Acids Titrated by a Strong Base
     Tips for Titrations
15.5 Solubility Equilibria
     15.5.1 Introduction and Problem-Solving
     Tips for Solubility Product Constant Problems
     15.5.2 The Common-Ion Effect
     15.5.3 The Effect of pH on Solubility
     15.5.4 Physiological Example of pH and Solubility
15.6 Complex-Ion Formation Equilibria
Tips for Complex-Ion Formation Constant Problems
Case Study: Carbon Monoxide, Cyanide, and Lead Poisoning
Summary

16. Chemical Thermodynamics

16.1 Introduction
16.2 Defining Entropy
     16.2.1 The Boltzmann Equation
        16.2.1.1 Molecular Motion
        16.2.1.2 Microstates and Probability
        16.2.1.3 The Boltzmann Equation and Constant
     16.2.2 The Third Law of Thermodynamics
     16.2.3 Entropy vs. Disorder
     16.2.4 Predicting the Relative Magnitude of Entropy
16.3 Changes in Entropy
     16.3.1 System, Surroundings, and Universe
     16.3.2 Defining Spontaneity: The Second Law of Thermodynamics
16.4 Changes in the Entropy of the System
     16.4.1 Changes in Temperature of the System
     16.4.2 Changes in Volume of the System
     16.4.3 Changes in Pressure of the System
     16.4.4 Entropy of Mixing
     Tips for Discerning Between Favorable, Unfavorable, Spontaneous and Non-Spontaneous Processes
     16.4.5 Chemical Reactions
16.5 Gibbs Free Energy
     16.5.1 Definition of Gibbs Free Energy
     16.5.2 Spontaneity and Temperature
     Tips for Calculating Gibbs Free Energy
     16.5.3 Standard Gibbs Free Energy
     16.5.4 Gibbs Free Energy and Dynamic Equilibrium: The Relationship of ΔG to K
16.6 Temperature Dependence of the Equilibrium Constant
Case Study: Photosynthesis
Summary

17. Electrochemistry

Introduction
17.1 Oxidation–Reduction Reactions Revisited
17.2 Half-Reaction Procedure for Balancing Redox Reactions
     17.2.1 Balancing Redox Reactions in Acidic Solutions
     Tips for Balancing Redox Reactions
     17.2.2 Balancing Redox Reactions in Basic Solution
17.3 Harnessing the Free Energy of Redox Reactions - Voltaic Cells
     17.3.1 Cell Potentials, ε – One Way to Directly Measure ΔG
     17.3.2 Standard Reduction Potentials
     17.3.3 Interpreting and Using Standard Reduction Potentials
     Tips for Using Standard Reduction Potentials
     17.3.4 A Second Look at the Activity Series
17.4 Nonstandard Cell Potentials – The Nernst Equation
     17.4.1 Concentration Cells
17.5 The Evolution of Batteries - Useful Electrochemistry
     17.5.1 Lead–Acid Battery
     17.5.2 Dry Cells
     17.5.3 Nickel Metal Hydride Battery
     17.5.4 Li Ion Battery
17.6 Electrolysis – Nonspontaneous Electrochemistry
17.7 Corrosion
Case Study: Mammalian Nerve Impulses – Biological Concentration Cells
Summary

18. Coordination Chemistry

18.1 Introduction
18.2  Coordination Compounds
     18.2.1 The Coordination Sphere
     18.2.2 Nomenclature of Coordination Compounds
     18.2.2A Names and Structures of Mono- and Polydentate Ligands
     18.2.2B Rules for Naming Coordination Compounds
     Tips for Solving Nomenclature Problems
     18.2.3  Common Geometries
     18.2.3A Coordination Number Four
     18.2.3B Coordination Number Six
     18.2.4 Isomers
     18.2.4A Structural Isomers
     18.2.4B Stereoisomers
     Tips for Identifying Possible Isomerism Types
18.3 Bonding in Coordination Compounds
     18.3.1  Linus Pauling’s Valence Bond Theory for Coordination Compounds
     18.3.2 Crystal Field Theory
     18.3.2A Splitting of Transition Metal d Orbitals in an Octahedral Field
     18.3.2B Splitting of Transition Metal d Orbitals in a Tetrahedral and Square Planar Field
     18.3.2C High- and Low-Spin Electron Configurations
     Tips for Determination of Electron Spin
     18.3.3 Factors Affecting the Crystal Field Stabilization Energy
     18.3.3A  The Transition Metals
     18.3.3B Transition Metal Oxidation States
     18.3.3C The Geometric Field of the Ligands
     18.3.3D The Identity of the Ligand
     18.3.4 Color of Coordination Compounds
     18.3.4A Electronic Transitions in Coordination Compounds
     Tips for Solving Problems Dealing with the Color of Coordination Compounds
     18.3.5  Magnetic Behavior of Coordination Compounds
Case Study: White Paint and Sunblock
Summary

19. Nuclear Chemistry

19.1 Radioactivity
     19.1.1 Discovery of Radioactivity
     19.1.2 Nuclear Symbolism and Terminology
     19.1.3 Alpha Radiation
     19.1.4 Beta Radiation
     19.1.4A Negative Beta Radiation
     ​19.1.4B Positron (Positive Beta) Radiation
     19.1.4C Electron Capture Radiation
     19.1.5 Gamma Radiation
     19.1.6 Interaction of Radiation with Matter
     19.1.7 Kinetics of Radioactivity
     19.1.8 Radiation Detectors
19.2 Hazards and Uses of Radioactivity
     19.2.1 Health Hazards of Radioactivity
     Case Study: Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Disaster
     19.2.2 Diagnostic and Therapeutic Uses of Radioactivity
     19.2.3 Radiocarbon Dating
19.3 Energetics of Nuclear Phenomena
     19.3.1 Binding Energy per Nucleon
19.4 The Nuclear Periodic Chart
Tips for Balancing Nuclear Reactions
19.5 Nuclear Reactions
     19.5.1 Coulombic Repulsion in Nuclear Reactions
19.6 Fission and Fusion – Important Nuclear Reactions
     19.6.1 Fission Reactions
     Case Study: New Safe Confinement at Chernobyl
     Case Study: Waste Implementation Pilot Plant (WIPP)
     19.6.2 Fusion Reactions
19.7 Nucleosynthesis – Formation of the Elements
Summary