Biochemistry of Genes and Chromosomes
Biochemistry of Genes and Chromosomes

Biochemistry of Genes and Chromosomes

Lead Author(s): Saylor Academy

Source: Saylor

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A question pack on advanced biochemistry from Saylor Academy.

This content is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.

Biochemistry of Genes and Chromosomes, Signaling and Techniques Q1

The input and output of glycolysis is ______________.

A

Two molecules glucose, 6 molecules CO2

B

One molecule glucose, 2 molecules pyruvate

C

One molecule glucose, 4 molecules pyruvate

D

One molecule glycogen, 2 molecules pyruvate

Biochemistry of Genes and Chromosomes, Signaling and Techniques Q2

The sugar on ATP is ______________.

A

Deoxyribose

B

Glucose

C

Cholesterol

D

Ribose

Biochemistry of Genes and Chromosomes, Signaling and Techniques Q3

The ______________ is a hub of cellular metabolism because it links the oxidation of carbohydrates, fatty acids, and proteins to ATP synthesis.

A

TCA/citrate cycle

B

Urea cycle

C

Glycolysis cycle

D

Pentose pathway

Biochemistry of Genes and Chromosomes, Signaling and Techniques Q4

Glycolysis requires oxygen.

A

True

B

False

Biochemistry of Genes and Chromosomes, Signaling and Techniques Q5

Under aerobic conditions, the pyruvate produced during glycolysis can go on to ______________.

A

The pentose pathway

B

Oxidative phosphorylation

C

The urea cycle

D

All of the above

Biochemistry of Genes and Chromosomes, Signaling and Techniques Q6

Rank the following, from highest to lowest, in terms of energy: AMP, ATP, ADP?

A

ATP, ADP, AMP

B

AMP, ADP, ATP

C

ADP, ATP, AMP

D

ATP, AMP, ADP

Biochemistry of Genes and Chromosomes, Signaling and Techniques Q7

A Holliday Junction structure occurs during which process?

A

Recombination

B

Replication

C

Transcription

D

Translation

Biochemistry of Genes and Chromosomes, Signaling and Techniques Q8

DNA is synthesized in a ______________ direction.

A

Left to right

B

Top to bottom

C

5' to 3'

D

3' to 5'

Biochemistry of Genes and Chromosomes, Signaling and Techniques Q9

DNA replication is carried out by a ______________ enzyme.

A

Helicase

B

Polymerase

C

Kinase

D

Topoisomerase

Biochemistry of Genes and Chromosomes, Signaling and Techniques Q10

DNA replication is semi-conservative. What does this mean?

A

Half the total DNA is copied

B

Each DNA strand serves as a template during replication

C

Only some base pairs are altered during replication

D

None of the above

Biochemistry of Genes and Chromosomes, Signaling and Techniques Q11

DNA serves as a template for which type of RNA?

A

mRNA

B

rRNA

C

tRNA

D

All of the above

Biochemistry of Genes and Chromosomes, Signaling and Techniques Q12

There are three types of RNA polymerases in eukaryotic cells. RNA polymerase I transcribes ______________, RNA polymerase II transcribes ______________, and RNA polymerase III mainly transcribes ______________.

A

Introns, mRNA, rRNA

B

rRNA, mRNA, tRNA

C

tRNA, introns, rRNA

D

mRNA, tRNA, rRNA

Biochemistry of Genes and Chromosomes, Signaling and Techniques Q13

Which of the following are post-transcriptional modifications of RNA?

A

Cap addition

B

Poly A tail addition

C

Intron removal

D

All of the above

Biochemistry of Genes and Chromosomes, Signaling and Techniques Q14

______________ enzymes maintain the torsional stress of DNA.

A

Helicase

B

Topoisomerase

C

Kinase

D

Restriction

Biochemistry of Genes and Chromosomes, Signaling and Techniques Q15

Activation of receptor tyrosine kinases results in ______________.

A

The opening of ion channels

B

The phosphorylation of the receptor

C

Membrane potential alterations

D

The exchange of GTP for GDP

Biochemistry of Genes and Chromosomes, Signaling and Techniques Q16

Intracellular pathways are altered through extracellular molecules binding to ______________.

A

Polymerases

B

Ligases

C

Receptors

D

All of the above

Biochemistry of Genes and Chromosomes, Signaling and Techniques Q17

Molecules that play an important role in cell adhesion and structure include ______________.

A

Integrins

B

Cadherins

C

Selectins

D

All of the above

Biochemistry of Genes and Chromosomes, Signaling and Techniques Q18

Steroids act as signaling molecules by ______________.

A

Binding to extracellular domains of receptor molecules

B

Binding to the plasma membrane

C

Binding to receptors internal to the cell

D

None of the above

Biochemistry of Genes and Chromosomes, Signaling and Techniques Q19

Ligand binding to receptors can result in wide-spread gene expression changes via signal amplification.

A

True

B

False

Biochemistry of Genes and Chromosomes, Signaling and Techniques Q20

Stimulation of a G protein coupled receptor results in ______________.

A

The flow of ions through the receptor

B

Phosphorylation of the receptor

C

The exchange of GDP for GTP

D

None of the above

Biochemistry of Genes and Chromosomes, Signaling and Techniques Q21

ELISAs use ______________, enabling the measurement of specific proteins in a solution.

A

PCR

B

Purification

C

Antibodies

D

None of the above

Biochemistry of Genes and Chromosomes, Signaling and Techniques Q22

In a Southern blot, probes are used to ______________.

A

Hybridize to a specific sequence of DNA

B

Hybridize to a specific sequence of RNA

C

Amplify a specific piece of DNA

D

Degrade a specific piece of RNA

Biochemistry of Genes and Chromosomes, Signaling and Techniques Q23

PCR is a valuable tool for analyzing DNA because ______________.

A

It allows for the exponential amplification of a small amount of starting material

B

It takes a short amount of time

C

The DNA sequence amplified need not be known

D

All of the above

Biochemistry of Genes and Chromosomes, Signaling and Techniques Q24

During SDS-PAGE, proteins are primarily separated according to their ______________.

A

Mass

B

Shape

C

Charge

D

All of the above

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