Measurements and Analysis for Mechanical Engineers
Measurements and Analysis for Mechanical Engineers

Measurements and Analysis for Mechanical Engineers

Lead Author(s): Bridget Smyser

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An online textbook geared toward mechanical engineers that teaches experimental design, data analysis, uncertainty concepts, and key measurement techniques.

Table of Contents


Chapter 1: Introduction to Measurements
       How and why we measure
       Measurement systems
       Variables
       Units and Standards
       Image sources
       References

Chapter 2: Instrument Characteristics
       What do we need to know about sensors?
       Accuracy and precision
       Demystifying specification sheets
       Sensitivity and common errors
       Types of Instruments
       Image sources
       References

Chapter 3: Calibration and Standards
       Standards
       Basic theory of calibration
       Calibration methods for common measurements
               Calibration for pressure measurement
               Calibration for temperture measurement
               Calibration for strain, mass, and load measurement
               Calibration for pH measurement
               Calibration for sound measurement
               Calibration for flow rate measurement
       Image sources
       References

Chapter 4: Design of Experiments
       Big picture of Design of Experiments
       Parameter Design
               Examining the need for the experiment
               Defining the objectives for the experiment
               Determining what you want to measure
       System and Tolerance Design
               Identifying the important variables
               Designing the experiment
               Performing the experiments
       Data Reduction Design
               Analyzing the results
               Acting on the results
               Reporting the results
       Image sources
       References

Chapter 5: Uncertainty
       How close can we get?
       Design stage uncertainty
       Advanced stage uncertainty
       Multiple measurement analysis
       Error propagation
       Reducing and eliminating errors
       Summary
       Image sources
       References

Chapter 6: Statistical Data Analysis
       Introduction to statistical measurement theory
       Infinte statistics and the normal distribution function
       Histograms
       Finite statistics
       Comparing samples using t-tests
               Two-tailed t-tests
               One tailed t-tests
               t-tests between two samples
               Data analysis in Microsoft Excel
               Analysis of variance (ANOVA)
       Correlation analysis
       Testing for normality
               Comparing histograms
               Normal probability plots
               Chi-squared analysis for goodness of fit
       Number of data points needed for significant results
       Identifying outliers
       Summary
       Image sources
       References

Chapter 7: Dynamic Measurements
       General model for measurement system behavior
       Zero order systems
       First order systems
               Step function input
               Pulsed input
               Ramp input
               Wave function input
       Second order systems
               Step function input
               Wave function input
       Special case: Using system behavior to study heat transfer
       Summary
       Image sources
       References

Chapter 8: Electrical Measurements and Signal Processing
       Basic definitions
       Signal characteristics
               Periodic signals and Fourier analysis
       Sampling theory
       Useful circuit concepts
               Amplifiers
               Filters
               Special purpose circuits
               Errors in electrical measuremetns
       Electrical measurement devices
       Image sources
       References

Chapter 9: Strain and Related Measurements
       Review of stress-strain concepts
       Relating strain to electrical resistance
       Wheatstone bridge circuits for strain measurements
               Quarter bridge circuits
               Half bridge circuits
               Full bridge circuits
       Strain gauge specifications
       Practical considerations for strain gauges
       Applications of strain gauges
       Summary
       Image sources
       References

Chapter 10: Temperature and Related Measurements
       What is temperature?
       Errors in temperature measurement
       Methods for measuring temperature
               Thermal expansion measurements
               Thermoelectric measurements
               Thermal resistance measurements
               Thermal radiation measurements
       Measuring thermal and transport properties
               Thermal conductivity
               Viscosity
               Diffusion coefficients
       Summary
       Image sources
       References

Chapter 11: Pressure and Related Measurements
       Pressure scales and units
       Types of pressure instruments
               Hydrostatic pressure instruments
               Aneroid pressure instruments
       Static calibration
       Dynamic pressure measurements in flowing fluids
               Fluid flow over objects
               Transmission effects in dynamic pressure measurements
       Summary
       Image sources
       References

Chapter 12: Fluid Flow Measurement
       Air flow measurement
               Thermal anemometry
               Doppler anemometry
               Particle image velocimetry
       Mass flow measurement
       Volumetric flow rate measurement
               Differential pressure meters
               Turbine flow meters
               Rotameters
               Drag based meters
               Electromagnetic flow meters
               Ultrasonic flow meters
       Calibration of flow meters
       Practical considerations for flow measurements
       Image sources
       References