Social loafing is a phenomenon in social psychology, where an individual exerts less effort to meet a goal when working in a group than they do working individually. It is often viewed as one of the main reasons that groups are less productive than the combined performance of the group members working independently. Group members develop a casual attitude towards the assigned responsibilities by putting in their least contribution.
Social loafing refers to a detrimental effect found in academic and professional environments where individuals are less productive when working in a group setting. Whether or not social loafing occurs depends on members’ expectations for, and value of, the group’s goal.