OpenStax: Sociology
OpenStax: Sociology

OpenStax: Sociology

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Introduction to Sociology 2e


Collection edited by: OpenStax College

Content authors: OpenStax College and Openstax College Sociology 2e

Based on: Introduction to Sociology <http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11407/1.7>.

Online: <https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11762/1.3>

This selection and arrangement of content as a collection is copyrighted by Rice University.

Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

Collection structure revised: 2015/03/13

For copyright and attribution information for the modules contained in this collection, see the "Attributions" section at the end of the collection.

Table of Contents

Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

1 An Introduction to Sociology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

What Is Sociology? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

The History of Sociology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

Theoretical Perspectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

Why Study Sociology? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

2 Sociological Research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

Approaches to Sociological Research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

Research Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

Ethical Concerns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

3 Culture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

What Is Culture? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52

Elements of Culture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56

Pop Culture, Subculture, and Cultural Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62

Theoretical Perspectives on Culture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66

4 Society and Social Interaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75

Types of Societies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76

Theoretical Perspectives on Society . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80

Social Constructions of Reality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85

5 Socialization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93

Theories of Self-Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95

Why Socialization Matters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98

Agents of Socialization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100

Socialization Across the Life Course . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104

6 Groups and Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115

Types of Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117

Group Size and Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121

Formal Organizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125

7 Deviance, Crime, and Social Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135

Deviance and Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136

Theoretical Perspectives on Deviance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138

Crime and the Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144

8 Media and Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157

Technology Today . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159

Media and Technology in Society . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162

Global Implications of Media and Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167

Theoretical Perspectives on Media and Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170

9 Social Stratification in the United States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185

What Is Social Stratification? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187

Social Stratification and Mobility in the United States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192

Global Stratification and Inequality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197

Theoretical Perspectives on Social Stratification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199

10 Global Inequality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209

Global Stratification and Classification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210

Global Wealth and Poverty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215

Theoretical Perspectives on Global Stratification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220

11 Race and Ethnicity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229

Racial, Ethnic, and Minority Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230

Stereotypes, Prejudice, and Discrimination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231

Theories of Race and Ethnicity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235

Intergroup Relationships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236

Race and Ethnicity in the United States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238

12 Gender, Sex, and Sexuality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255

Sex and Gender . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256

Gender . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261

Sex and Sexuality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266

13 Aging and the Elderly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277

Who Are the Elderly? Aging in Society . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278

The Process of Aging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286

Challenges Facing the Elderly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292

Theoretical Perspectives on Aging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296

14 Marriage and Family . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311

What Is Marriage? What Is a Family? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313

Variations in Family Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317

Challenges Families Face . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322

15 Religion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337

The Sociological Approach to Religion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338

World Religions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342

Religion in the United States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347

16 Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357

Education around the World . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358

Theoretical Perspectives on Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363

Issues in Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367

17 Government and Politics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379

Power and Authority . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380

Forms of Government . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384

Politics in the United States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 388

Theoretical Perspectives on Government and Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 389

18 Work and the Economy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 399

Economic Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 402

Globalization and the Economy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411

Work in the United States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 414

19 Health and Medicine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 429

The Social Construction of Health . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 431

Global Health . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 433

Health in the United States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 434

Comparative Health and Medicine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 439

Theoretical Perspectives on Health and Medicine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 442

20 Population, Urbanization, and the Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 455

Demography and Population . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 458

Urbanization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 462

The Environment and Society . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 466

21 Social Movements and Social Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 481

Collective Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 483

Social Movements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 486

Social Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 492

Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 505

Preface

About OpenStax College

OpenStax College is a non-profit organization committed to improving student access to quality learning materials. Our free textbooks are developed and peer-reviewed by educators to ensure they are readable, accurate, and meet the scope and sequence requirements of modern college courses. Unlike traditional textbooks, OpenStax College resources live online and are owned by the community of educators using them. Through our partnerships with companies and foundations committed to reducing costs for students, OpenStax College is working to improve access to higher education for all. OpenStax College is an initiative of Rice University and is made possible through the generous support of several philanthropic foundations.

About This Book

Welcome to Introduction to Sociology 2e, an OpenStax College resource created with several goals in mind: accessibility, affordability, customization, and student engagement—all while encouraging learners toward high levels of learning. Instructors and students alike will find that this textbook offers a strong foundation in sociology. It is available for free online and in low-cost print and e-book editions.

To broaden access and encourage community curation, Introduction to Sociology 2e is “open source” licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) license. Everyone is invited to submit examples, emerging research, and other feedback to enhance and strengthen the material and keep it current and relevant for today’s students. You can make suggestions by contacting us at info@openstaxcollege.org. You can find the status of the project, as well as alternate versions, corrections, etc., on the StaxDash at http://openstaxcollege.org (http://openstaxcollege.org) .

To the Student

https://app.tophat.com/e/250970This book is written for you and is based on the teaching and research experience of numerous sociologists. In today’s global socially networked world, the topic of sociology is more relevant than ever before. We hope that through this book, you will learn how simple, everyday human actions and interactions can change the world. In this book, you will find applications of sociology concepts that are relevant, current, and balanced.

To the Instructor

This text is intended for a one-semester introductory course. Since current events influence our social perspectives and the field of sociology in general, OpenStax College encourages instructors to keep this book fresh by sending in your up-todate examples to info@openstaxcollege.org so that students and instructors around the country can relate and engage in fruitful discussions.

General Approach

Introduction to Sociology 2e adheres to the scope and sequence of a typical introductory sociology course. In addition to comprehensive coverage of core concepts, foundational scholars, and emerging theories we have incorporated section reviews with engaging questions, discussions that help students apply the sociological imagination, and features that draw learners into the discipline in meaningful ways. Although this text can be modified and reorganized to suit your needs, the standard version is organized so that topics are introduced conceptually, with relevant, everyday experiences.

Changes to the Second Edition

Part of the mission of the second edition update was to ensure the research, examples and concepts used in this textbook are current and relevant to today’s student. To this end, we have rewritten the introduction of each chapter to reflect the latest developments in sociology, history and global culture. In addition to new graphs and images, the reader of the second edition will find new feature boxes on a diverse array of topics, which has been one of the goals of the update—bringing the world into greater focus through case studies on global culture.

For instance, since the first edition there have been major cultural shifts within the Middle East and Arab world—a movement still underway called the Arab Spring—changes that are now incorporated into our coverage on social movements and social unrest (Chapter 21, “Social Movements and Social Change”). New issues in immigration, in the United States and across the world, have been brought to the forefront of the second edition, as rising income gaps and Preface 1 modern transportation are responsible for trends in Europe (fears of Islamic conservatism and economic recession) and political debates in the U.S. (such as border security, universal education and health care).

Since the first edition in 2012, technology and social media has ushered in new forms of communication, and, of course, these changes are altering the fabric of social life around the world. The benefits and downfalls of new technologies are reflected in new material in Chapter 4, “Society and Social Interaction,” where we discuss how social media is changing classical models of social stratification and prestige.

In addition to updating critical facts, data, and policies from the first edition, we have expanded on essential topics, including:

Feminism and feminist theory Health care legislation

US social stratification Minimum wage policies

Transgender issues and changes to the DSM-V Global statistics on education

Marriage and pay equality Competing theories of tolerance

The use of charter schools Cyberbullying

Impact of economy on population segments Climate change debates

Use of technology and social media by Global population and demographic shifts

individuals and groups Net neutrality, online privacy and security

Other topics received a light update for relevance and student engagement. The racial tensions that have come about through the cases of Trayvon Martin and Michael Brown, as well as the legalization of marijuana are two examples of such additions.

Features of OpenStax Introduction to Sociology 2e

We have retained and updated the special features of the original text for this updated version.

Modularity

This textbook is organized on Connexions (http://cnx.org (http://cnx.org) ) as a collection of modules that can be rearranged and modified to suit the needs of a particular professor or class. That being said, modules often contain references to content in other modules, as most topics in sociology cannot be discussed in isolation.

Learning Objectives

Every module begins with a set of clear and concise learning objectives. These objectives are designed to help the instructor decide what content to include or assign, and to guide the student with respect to what he or she can expect to learn. After completing the module and end-of-module exercises, students should be able to demonstrate mastery of the learning objectives.

Key Features

  • The following features show students the dynamic nature of sociology:
  • Sociological Research: Highlights specific current and relevant research studies. Examples include “Is Music a Cultural Universal?” and “Deceptive Divorce Rates.”
  • Sociology in the Real World: Ties chapter content to student life and discusses sociology in terms of the everyday. Topics include “Secrets of the McJob” and “Grade Inflation: When Is an A Really a C?”
  • Big Picture: Features present sociological concepts at a national or international level, including “Education in Afghanistan” and “American Indian Tribes and Environmental Racism.”
  • Case Study: Describes real-life people whose experiences relate to chapter content, such as “Catherine Middleton: The Commoner Who Would Be Queen.”
  • Social Policy and Debate: Discusses political issues that relate to chapter content, such as “The Legalese of Sex and Gender” and “Is the U.S. Bilingual?”
  • Careers in Sociology: Explores the lives and work of those in careers in sociology, including the real-world issues and debates these professionals encounter on a daily basis.

Section Summaries

Section summaries distill the information in each section for both students and instructors down to key, concise points addressed in the section.

Key Terms

Key terms are bold and are followed by a definition in context. Definitions of key terms are also listed in the Glossary, which appears at the end of the module online and at the end of the chapter in print.

Section Quizzes

Section quizzes provide opportunities to apply and test the information students learn throughout each section. Both multiple-choice and short-response questions feature a variety of question types and range of difficulty.

Further Research

This feature helps students further explore the section topic and offers related research topics that could be explored.

Acknowledgements

Introduction to Sociology is based on the work of numerous professors, writers, editors, and reviewers who are able to bring topics to students in the most engaging way.

We would like to thank all those listed below as well as many others who have contributed their time and energy to review and provide feedback on the manuscript. Especially Clint Lalonde and team at BC Campus for sharing the updates they made for use in this edition, and the team at Stark State College for their editorial support in this update. Their input has been critical in maintaining the pedagogical integrity and accuracy of the text.

Faculty Contributors

Heather Griffiths, Fayetteville State University*

Nathan Keirns, Zane State College*

Eric Strayer, Hartnell College*

Susan Cody-Rydzewski, Georgia Perimeter College

Gail Scaramuzzo, Lackawanna College

Tommy Sadler, Union University

Sally Vyain, Ivy Tech Community College*

Jeff Bry, Minnesota State Community and Technical College at Moorhead*

Faye Jones, Mississippi Gulf Coast Community College

*individuals who were contributors to the 2nd edition

Faculty Reviewers

Rick Biesanz, Corning Community College

Cynthia Heddlesten, Metropolitan Community College

Janet Hund, Long Beach City College

Thea Alvarado, College of the Canyons

Daysha Lawrence, Stark State College

Sally Vyain, Ivy Tech Community College

Natashia Willmott, Stark State College

Angela M. Adkins, Stark State College

Carol Jenkins, Glendale Community College

Lillian Marie Wallace, Pima Community College

J. Brandon Wallace, Middle Tennessee State University

Gerry R. Cox, professor emeritus at the University of Wisconsin-La Crosse

David Hunt, Augusta State University

Jennifer L. Newman-Shoemake, Angelo State University, and Cisco College

Matthew Morrison, University of Virginia

Sue Greer-Pitt, Southeast Kentucky Community and Technical College

Faye Jones, Mississippi Gulf Coast Community College

Athena Smith, Hillsborough Community College

Kim Winford, Blinn College

Kevin Keating, Broward College

Russell Davis, University of West Alabama

Kimberly Boyd, Piedmont Virginia Community College

Lynn Newhart, Rockford College

Russell C. Ward, Maysville Community and Technical College

Xuemei Hu, Union County College

Margaret A. Choka, Pellissippi State Community College

Cindy Minton, Clark State Community College

Nili Kirschner, Woodland Community College

Shonda Whetstone, Blinn College

Elizabeth Arreaga, instructor emerita at Long Beach City College

Florencio R. Riguera, Catholic University of America

John B. Gannon, College of Southern Nevada

Gerald Titchener, Des Moines Area Community College

Rahime-Malik Howard, El Centro College, and Collin College

Jeff Bry, Minnesota State Community and Technical College at Moorhead

Cynthia Tooley, Metropolitan Community College at Blue River

Carol Sebilia, Diablo Valley College

Marian Moore, Owens Community College

John Bartkowski, University of Texas at San Antonio

Shelly Dutchin, Western Technical College

Supplements

Accompanying the main text is an Instructor’s PowerPoint (https://openstaxcollege.org/textbooks/introduction-tosociology) file, which includes all of the images and captions found throughout the text and an Instructor’s test bank.

Disclaimer

All photos and images were licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) license at the time they were placed into this book. The CC-BY license does not cover any trademarks or logos in the photos. If you have questions about regarding photos or images, please contact us at info@openstaxcollege.org.





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