Issues in Criminal Justice
Issues in Criminal Justice

Issues in Criminal Justice

Lead Author(s): Clete Snell, PhD

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Issues in Criminal Justice provides students with an immersive experience in the most complex and controversial topics in the discipline including: police misconduct, wrongful convictions, prison reform, gun violence, and the media and crime. The text covers current events such as the reaction to George Floyd's death, recent police reform initiatives, and the role of the media in shaping our perspectives on crime and criminal justice. The text includes videos, discussions, quiz questions, and critical thinking exercises built in to the text.

Chapter 1: Introduction

Learning Objectives

Breaking Down the Meaning in Criminal Justice System

Crime and Criminal

Justice

A Non-System

The Courtroom Workgroup

Crime Control and Due Process Models

Due Process Model

The Wedding Cake Model

The Importance of Discretion

Politics and Crime

Conclusion

Image Credits

References


Chapter 2: The History and Future of Policing

Learning Objectives

Introduction

Peel’s Principles

Early Policing in America

Corruption and Reform

The Emergence of Police Professionalism

Policing in the 1960s

Community Policing

Policing at a Crossroads

Policing in the Future

Principled Policing

Conclusion

Image Credits

References


Chapter 3: Police and the Use of Force

Learning Objectives

Introduction

Reasonable Force

The Use of Force and the Law

Use of Force Research

Frequency of the Use of Deadly Force

Use of Force in Minority Communities

New York City and Stop and Frisk

The Special Case of Tasers

Why Does Police Brutality Happen?

Brutality is Tolerated

Brutality as a Rite of Passage

Anxiety and Fear

The Code of Silence

Measures to Reduce the Illegal Use of Force

Body Cameras

Citizen Review Boards

Hiring a More Diverse Police Force

Police Reform after George Floyd’s Death

Chokeholds

Duty to Intervene

Defunding the Police

The Role of Police Unions

Police Reform Legislation

Conclusion

Image Credits

References


Chapter 4: Pretrial Detention

Learning Objectives

Introduction

Jails

Riker’s Island Jail

The Problems with Bail Bonds

Pretrial Detention Reforms

Pretrial Risk Assessments

Diversion from the System

Alternatives to Jail for Convicted Offenders

Expedite Case Processing

Examples of Pretrial Reforms

Law Enforcement Assisted Diversion (LEAD)

The Harris County Pretrial Diversion Initiative

Conclusion

Image Credits

References


Chapter 5: Wrongful Convictions

Learning Objectives

Introduction

Eyewitness Misidentifications

Law Enforcement Eyewitness Identification Procedures

Recommendations to Improve Eyewitness Identification

False Confessions

The Causes of False Confessions

Misidentification Errors

The Coercion Error

The Contamination Error

Jailhouse Informant Testimony

Recommendations for Reform

Errors in Forensic Science

Prosecutor Misconduct

Conclusion

Image Credit

References


Chapter 6: Sentencing

Learning Objectives

Introduction

Mass Incarceration

Restorative Justice

Victim Offender Mediation

Conferencing

Sentencing Circles

Reparative Boards

Victim-Offender Panels

The Specialty Court Movement

The Team

Planning and Advisory Boards

Terms of Participation

Treatment Services

Monitoring Adherence to Court Requirements

Sustainability

Tarrant County Mental Health Diversion Program (MHDP)

Conclusion

Image Credit

References


Chapter 7: Prison Reform

Learning Objectives

Introduction

Judicial Intervention in Prisons

Prison Overcrowding

The Prison Subculture and Violence

Solitary Confinement

Prison Healthcare

Prison Rehabilitation

Canada’s Rehabilitation Program (The Risk Need Responsivity Model)

Australia, New Zealand, and Belgium: The Good Lives Model

The Scandinavian Model

U.S. Prisons in Transition

Conclusion

Image Credit

References


Chapter 8: Prisoner Reentry

Learning Objectives

Introduction

Parole

Factors that Impact Reentry

Employment

Housing

Education

Mental Health & Substance Abuse

Family Support

Prison Recidivism

The Reentry Movement

Mixed Results of Reentry Programs

Factors that May Lead to Successful Reentry

The Mentally Ill Offender Community Transition Program (MIOCTP)

Conclusion

References


Chapter 9: Mental Illness and Criminal Justice

Learning Objectives

Introduction

History of Mental Illness in the United States

Types of Mental Disorders

Serious Mental Illness and Crime

Law Enforcement and the Mentally Ill

Memphis Model Crisis Intervention Team

Mobile Crisis Intervention Teams

Chronic Consumer Stabilization

Criminal Courts

Competency to Stand Trial

Insanity Defenses

The Development of Mental Health Courts

Prisons and Mental Illness

Conclusion

Image Credits

References


Chapter 10: Women and Criminal Justice

Learning Objectives

Introduction

Female Offenders

Explanations for Low Female Crime Rates

Women in Prison

Women as Crime Victims

Rape Myths

Legal Protections for Victims

Stalking

Women in Criminal Justice Careers

Conclusion

References


Chapter 11: Juvenile Justice

Learning Objectives

Introduction

The Child Savers

The Due Process Revolution in Juvenile Courts

Juveniles as Super-Predators

Attorneys in Juvenile Courts

Status Offenses

Juveniles and Developmental Neuroscience

A Return to Rehabilitation

Model Programs

Multisystemic Therapy

Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care

The Incredible Years

Conclusion

Image Credits

References


Chapter 12: Gun Violence

Learning Objectives

Introduction

Gun Violence Statistics

The Second Amendment and Gun Legislation

The Politics of Gun Violence

The National Rifle Association

The Protection of Lawful Commerce in Arms Act (PLCAA)

The Tiahrt Amendment

The Dickey Amendment

Gun Violence Research

Guns for Self-Defense

The Impact of Gun Laws

Reducing Gun Violence

Gun Violence Reduction in other Countries

Public Health Approach

Conclusion

Image Credits

References


Chapter 13: Race and Criminal Justice

Learning Objectives

Introduction

Explaining Differential Involvement

Social Disorganization Theory

The Truly Disadvantaged

Code of the Streets

Differential Selection

Police

Misdemeanors

Pretrial Decisions

Plea Bargaining and Prosecutors

Juries

Death Penalty

Sentencing

Prisons

Explanations for Systemic Racism

History of Racial Oppression

Social Psychology and Race Relations

Conclusion

References


Chapter 14: Media and Criminal Justice

Learning Objectives

Introduction

The Public Fascination with Crime

The CSI Effect

Cameras in the Courtroom

The Impact of Viewing Media Violence

The News Media and Crime

Media Consolidation

In-Depth Reporting on Crime and Criminal Justice

Social Media and Crime

Conclusion

Image Credit

References