Introduction to Public Administration
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A question pack on public administration from Saylor Academy.
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According to political theorists, public administrators attempt to solve the problems of government through the use of the bureaucracy. Which of the following is best suited to accomplish this task?
Complete the following sentence. Public administration is the most significant component of the government machinery of the state and can be defined as:
being associated with private groups.
having a legislative function.
Complete the following sentence. The scope of public administration has changed over the years to take into account:
maintaining law and order.
providing more services and amenities.
collecting revenue and taxes.
How might an organization interpret a narrow view of public administration?
Public administration is a part of the political process.
Public administration covers all branches of government.
Public administration covers the administrative functions related to the executive branch.
Public administration is associated with numerous public sector groups.
Max Weber’s legal-rational model of bureaucracy has which of the following elements?
Rationality in decision-making
Phase II in the evolution of public administration, from 1927–1937, established the discipline of public administration as an independent science. The succeeding Phase III, from 1939–1947, brought changes in the nature of the discipline. Which of the following should be included in Phase III?
Inclusion of the visible side of government
Inclusion of the functions of the executive – planning, organizing, staffing, directing, coordinating, reporting, and budgeting (POSDCORB)
An emphasis on the effects of the environment on administrative behavior
A focus on the dynamics of administration
Phase IV in the evolution of public administration, from 1938–1937, is known as the “behavioral challenge” period. Which of the following best describes the dynamics of public administration during that period?
The discipline was widened to include policy issues and decision-making processes.
There was a crisis of identity in public administration as a discipline.
There was a specific focus on the dynamics that were unique to administration.
The “science” of administration gained greater credibility.
The five E’s of public administration affect elements like the need for good governance, transparency, and accountability in public administration in the US. Which of these E’s is compatible with managing public resources to provide the most products at the lowest cost?
The history of public administration has been divided into five phases. The fifth phase, from 1971 onwards, is viewed as a period of great progress and an enriched vision. Which of the following is compatible with this phase?
The claim of public administration as a science is challenged.
The principles of public administration are expanded on.
Public administration is viewed as an interdisciplinary issue.
This phase is a period of dichotomy.
The prevailing view of public administration divides its scope into two parts, administrative theory and applied administration. Which of the following is a part of the administrative theory point of view?
Public personnel administration
The prevailing view of public administration divides the subject into two parts, administrative theory and applied administration. Which of the following is included in applied administration?
Public personnel management
Which of the following is a unique characteristic of public-sector organizations?
Transparency of operations
Effective service delivery system
Diverse funding resources
Which of the following statements about the nature of public administration is true?
Public administration is the basis of government.
Public administration is the instrument of change in society.
Public administration formulates public policy
Public administration is a part of the political process.
Which of the following statements best describes the differences between public, nonprofit, and private sector organizations?
The general public holds public organizations accountable, donors hold nonprofit organizations accountable, and owners hold private sector organizations accountable.
Investors hold public organizations accountable, taxpayers hold nonprofit organizations accountable, and customers hold private sector organizations accountable.
The general public holds public organizations accountable, lenders hold nonprofit organizations accountable, and customers hold private sector organizations accountable.
Investors hold public organizations accountable, taxpayers hold nonprofit organizations accountable, and stockholders hold private sector organizations accountable.
Which of the following statements would be consistent with the views of Douglas McGregor (1906–1964)?
The average human being has an inherent dislike of work and will avoid it, if he can.
The average person learns, under proper conditions, not only to accept but to seek responsibility.
The average person prefers to be directed.
The average person is unambiguous and desires security above everything else.
A state university suspended its chief diversity officer after it was discovered that he had signed a petition to put same-sex marriage on the state ballot for a referendum vote. The university is home to a large contingent of gay and lesbian students, and the university’s position is that the diversity officer is a public employee, and by signing the petition, the diversity officer may have alienated a large portion of the student body and may not be as effective in carrying out the university’s mission. Which of the following statements best justifies whether or not the university was correct or incorrect in making this decision?
The university was correct in questioning the diversity officer’s ability to perform his job.
The university was incorrect, because its actions infringed upon the diversity officer’s First Amendment right to free speech.
The university was incorrect, because it failed to provide the proper training on university policies and the consequences of employee violations.
The university was correct in disciplining a public employee for engaging in political activities.
Article II of the US Constitution outlines presidential powers, and over time, the executive branch has assumed additional powers. The term “imperial presidency,” meaning a US presidency that is characterized by greater power than the Constitution allows, has been used to characterize the Nixon and Reagan presidencies. Which of the following arguments supports the premise of the imperial nature of the US presidency?
The president has great leeway in reorganizing the federal government.
The president has created new advisory bodies and appointed staff people who are personally loyal to the person holding the office of president.
The president has expansive authorities in dictating federal spending.
Personnel in the executive office of the president may act independent of, without regard for, and without accountability to Congress.
Complete the following sentence with a logical clause. In the American political system, the advantages of federalism include:
more measured public policies created through compromise and public debate.
the inclusion of dissenting and different ethnic, cultural, and racial minority viewpoints in policy decisions.
uniformity in policy making processes across states.
a cohesive system of checks and balances.
Complete the following sentence. Beginning with the Nixon administration, the primary focus of new federalism was on:
federal and state government relations.
federal, state, and local government relations.
state and local government relations.
interstate government relations.
Complete the following sentence. Federalism in the US has taken on many forms throughout the nation’s history. Under the Johnson, Nixon, and Bush administrations, federalism trended toward centralized relations among federal, state, and local governments. Under the Obama administration, federalism has advanced primarily in the form of:
less federal regulation, expanded state authority over social programs, and greater citizen participation.
distribution of more federal money, expanded targeted assistance, and federal entanglement in state policies.
privatization of services, expanded government contracting, and increased incentives for small business financing.
a whole-of-government perspective in developing tax proposals and an increase of the national debt.
Complete the following sentence. Government in the US is divided into three branches: the executive, legislative, and judicial branches. The judicial branch, including the Supreme Court and various federal courts, interprets the law and applies it in individual cases. While not directly subject to popular control, courts may be influenced by popular opinion. An example of public opinion shaping the direction of court decisions includes:
search and seizure cases.
employment discrimination cases.
Complete the following sentence. Prior to the Civil War, the Constitution focused primarily on establishing the limitations of the federal government. Passage of the 13th, 14th and 15th Amendments immediately after the Civil War shifted the focus in the balance of power to:
divert funds from local government to the federal government.
subject a state’s control over its own citizens to oversight by either the federal judiciary or Congress.
expand the powers of local governments.
focus of the rights of the individual.
Complete the following sentence. The biggest criticism of unfunded mandates by state and local government officials is that:
state and local governments have no role in developing the policies or their enforcement.
the policies are an unfair imposition of the national government on smaller governments.
the imposition of mandates may displace other state and local government priorities.
federal regulations set inflexible timelines.
Complete the following sentence. To date, 18 states and the District of Columbia have passed laws that exempt qualified users of medicinal marijuana from state legal penalties. The Supremacy Clause of the US Constitution elevates federal statutes and regulations above the laws of the states, and as a result, where federal and state laws are in conflict, the state law is generally preempted. Also under the supremacy clause, Congress may require the enforcement of federal laws in both state and federal court. State legalized medical marijuana use means that:
individuals and businesses may engage in marijuana-related activities that are authorized by the state in which they live.
the passage of medicinal marijuana laws affirm the states’ right to pursue policies that deviate from those advanced by the federal government.
compliance with state medical marijuana law does not provide a defense against prosecution brought under federal law.
recreational marijuana use is also decriminalized.
Issues associated with bureaucratic behavior and competence came to the forefront at the start of the dual federalism phase of intergovernmental relations. Important policy shifts happened that underscored the level of competition present in the system. Which of the following exemplified the competitive nature of this phase?
I. The need for program accomplishments, effective service delivery systems and citizen access.
II. Elimination/reduction in state program funding in favor of expanded federal funding for local programs.
III. Tension between policy generalists and the program-professional-specialists.
IV. Expanded regulatory restrictions governing federally assisted state and local programs
II and IV
I and III
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