Foundations of the Presidency
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A question pack on the Presidency and the Executive Branch from Saylor Academy.
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The Federalist Papers were originally written to convince what audience to support the Constitution?
New York citizens
Attendees of the Constitutional Convention
James Madison’s well-known quote from Federalist Paper No. 51 is “ambition must be made to counteract ambition.” Which of the following statements best represents what he was arguing?
A president should have a strong vice president to provide advice.
Our new government must have a system of checks and balances.
The Senate should have 100 members.
Presidents should serve a term of four years.
According to the Anti-Federalists, which of the following aspects of the executive branch violates the principle of the separation of powers?
The presidential cabinet
The vice president as president of the Senate
The president’s role as commander in chief
Which of the following was NOT an argument Hamilton provided in favor of the Electoral College in Federalist Paper No. 68?
The Electoral College is a good idea, because small states receive a disproportionately large representation.
Members of the Electoral College will have more information and therefore will be more capable of selecting the president than their fellow citizens.
Members of the Electoral College are more likely to select a president who is virtuous and non-corrupt than the general public.
Although the public does not directly elect the president, they still indirectly choose the president by voting on the members of the Electoral College.
Why does Hamilton argue in Federalist Paper No. 70 that it is a good idea to have a single person in the presidency, as opposed to multiple people?
A single president is easier to elect.
Multiple presidents would have too much power.
Multiple presidents are subject to differing opinions, which is especially dangerous in times of emergency when quick action is required.
Multiple presidents would be harder to convince to step down at the end of their terms.
In Anti-Federalist Paper No. 70, what is the chief concern about the powers and term of service of the president?
The term is too short for power to be wielded effectively.
The term is too long for a single person to sustain the duties assigned to him as president.
The term is too short, because the country will be constantly subject to presidential elections.
The term is too long for someone endowed with such power to be trusted to relinquish it.
Which of the following powers is NOT given to the president by Article II of the Constitution?
The power to declare war on other nations
The power to act as commander in chief of the military
The power to nominate Supreme Court judges
The power to nominate US ambassadors
As chief executive, the president oversees
all Pentagon activities.
the federal judiciary.
his party’s effort to craft new legislative initiatives.
the implementation of laws.
Issuing rules, regulations, or instructions that are legally binding upon federal agencies is referred to as a(n)
What is an example of an informal role of the presidency?
Political party leader
Commander in chief
President pro tempore
Which of the following is NOT a constraint on presidential power, following the typical post-election “honeymoon”?
A surprisingly independent executive bureaucracy
Partisan opposition in the Senate to presidential appointees
Judicial review of presidential appointees
A more critical media
According to William Marshall, which of the following is NOT one of the 11 reasons that presidential power inevitably expands?
Presidential nomination of Supreme Court justices
The increasingly polarized two-party system
The expansion of the executive branch
The constitutional indeterminacy of the presidency
During the Progressive Era, the presidency began to expand and evolve into the institution we know today. Prior to that, the presidency was very small and was subordinate to Congress. According to Thomas Woods, who was largely responsible for this change?
Thomas Woods argues that the constitutional framework, as created by the Founding Fathers, was intended to do which of the following?
Give the president the ability to unilaterally sign treaties with other countries
Make the president the “sole organ” who was in charge of foreign affairs
Give most of the responsibility over foreign policy to the legislative branch
Give the president the ability to declare war without consent from Congress
According to Sidney Milkis, what was unique about Theodore Roosevelt’s presidency compared to previous presidents?
He made significant contributions to the development and growth of the presidency outside of a period of polarizing conflict or war.
He had military experience, meaning Congress was more willing to grant him power over foreign policy.
He was not afraid of public speaking and was the first president to deliver the State of the Union address in person.
He used the vice president’s constitutional role as president of the Senate to his advantage.
Foreign policy is usually developed and implemented
by the president alone.
by the majority party in Congress.
by a large number of actors in the executive and legislative branches of government.
by members of the federal government and special interest groups.
Which of the following is NOT a way in which the president can influence foreign policy?
Declaring war on a foreign country
Negotiating foreign treaties and executive agreements
Proposing foreign policy legislation
Responding to foreign events
Acting as the diplomatic arm of the executive branch is primarily the role of the
National Security Council.
Department of State.
Department of Defense.
Central Intelligence Agency.
Which of the following is a traditionally important actor in the foreign policy development process?
The vice president
The national security advisor
The White House director of communications
The director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation
Although the president can negotiate treaties with foreign countries, the Senate must ratify those treaties before they become official. This demonstrates that
the legislative branch has more foreign policy power than the executive branch.
US foreign policy will always be flawed because of the separation of powers and checks and balances established in the Constitution.
the executive branch has more foreign policy power than the legislative branch.
both the executive and legislative branches of the federal government play a role in foreign policy development.
It is impossible to say whether the legislative or executive branch has decisive power in the creation of any given component of foreign policy, because
only the Supreme Court can make this determination.
it depends upon how the foreign policy process plays out for any given situation.
the Constitution is ambiguous about foreign policy powers.
the state department is part of both the executive and legislative branches of government.
According to John Yoo, which of the following is a reason why the president’s war powers should be considered nearly absolute?
All America presidents can be trusted to use this power responsibly.
Congress cannot be trusted to use this power responsibly.
The Supreme Court has specifically authorized presidents to exercise this power.
Congress’s only constitutional check on a president’s war powers is the power to control the funding of the military.
According to the War Powers Resolution of 1973, the president can
send troops into combat for up to 60 days, unless Congress votes to approve the action.
send troops into combat for an unlimited amount of time, if US national security is at stake.
only send troops into combat if Congress votes to approve the action.
never send troops into combat without congressional approval.
According to Alan Stolberg, why is it essential to locate “information gaps” when formulating foreign policy?
If information gaps exist in a policy, then the policy is flawed.
If information gaps exist in a policy, then it is essential to calculate the risk associated with those gaps
All information gaps must be closed to formulate effective foreign policy.
Because all information gaps lead to assumptions, they equally decrease the legitimacy of a foreign policy.
What element of the executive branch is best able to assess the risk-level of assumptions in foreign policy development?
The Office of Management and Budget (OMB)
The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)
The intelligence community
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