Ethics in Social Science Research
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A question pack on the ethics of social science research from Saylor Academy.
This content is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
Which of the following reasons would you use a chi-square test?
For testing differences in two variances.
Testing for equality of proportions.
Testing to make inferences about a population median.
None of the above.
Which of the following refers to the process of developing indicators or items for measuring constructs?
Which of the following serves as the primary foundation for developing and testing hypotheses and research questions in political science?
None of the above
Which of the following statements best describes a variable?
A variable defines constructs in terms of how they will be empirically measured.
A variable is an abstract measure of a concept.
A variable is an abstract concept that is specifically chosen to explain a given phenomenon.
A variable is a generalizable property or characteristic associated with an object, event, or person.
Which of the following statements best represents the goal of the researcher when performing deductive research?
The goal of the researcher when performing deductive research is to infer theoretical concepts and patterns from observed data.
The goal of the researcher when performing deductive research is to simply eliminate the alternative explanations.
The goal of the researcher when performing deductive research is to test concepts and patterns known from theory using new empirical data.
The goal of the researcher when performing deductive research is to avoid inductive inferences.
Which of the following statements is most true of political science before the 20th century?
Before the 20th century, political science was much the same as it is now.
Political science did not exist before the 20th century.
Before the 20th century, political science primarily concerned itself with quantitative descriptions of government.
Before the 20th century, political science was essentially philosophy focused on political questions and government.
Which of the following statements is true about a statistically significant correlation between two variables?
Statistical significance between two variables implies causality.
Statistical Significance between two variables does not imply causality because a third variable may explain the relationship.
Statistical significance tests are not appropriate for comparing two variables.
None of the above are true.
Which of the following statements is true of an alternative hypothesis?
An alternative hypothesis represents the prediction a researcher is making.
An alternative hypothesis represents all possible outcomes other than the researcher’s prediction.
An alternative hypothesis is the same as a null hypothesis.
An alternative hypothesis is the only hypothesis that is tested.
Which one of the following is not one of the steps researchers take when specifying constructs?
Choosing the most suitable measurement approach
Choosing the specific process for measuring the construct
Conducting a pilot study to test the measurement strategy
Developing a definition of the concept that uses easily understandable terms
Why do in-depth interviews lack generalizability?
There is too much data.
They are typically conducted selectively as opposed to randomly.
The sample sizes are typically too large.
Interviews are subjective.
Why do natural science researchers often criticize positivist case research?
It is lacking in controlled observations, controlled deductions, replicability, and generalizability of findings.
It fails to use inductive reasoning.
It is not useful for theory building.
It does not appropriately use within-case and cross-case data analysis.
Why is it a problem for a survey question to be double barreled?
Because respondents are forced into one answer when there may be more than response that represent their opinion
Because respondents are forced into more than one answer when there may be only one response that represents their opinion
Because it repeats the same word more than once making it confusing
Because the question simply repeats another question but worded in a different way
Why is understanding the unit of analysis you wish to study important?
Because this shapes the kinds of hypotheses you can make
Because it will guide the data collection
Because it determines what inferences can be made
All of the above
Why may we decide to use more than one method of measurement when specifying a construct?
To be more thorough
Because we may be wrong if we use only one method
Because any single method may only partially address the construct
Because using multiple methods allows for more sophisticated statistical analysis
Why might some argue that political science cannot be scientific?
Because it cannot be devoid of personal value judgments
Because it cannot produce generalizable theory
Because there is no way to test hypotheses
Because it is too young a discipline
Internal validity refers to which of the following?
Whether the observed associations can be generalized from the sample to the population
Whether the observed change in a dependent variable is indeed caused by a corresponding change in hypothesized independent variable, and not by variables extraneous to the research context
Whether the operationalization of a concept actually measures the concept
Whether the measurement of concept seems appropriate in its face
Most qualitative researchers believe that social reality is embedded within and cannot be abstracted from their social settings. This perspective leads them to believe the best way to understand such reality is what?
To engage in “sense-making”
What is a frequency distribution?
A summary of the frequency of individual values or ranges of values for a variable
A graph that describes the distribution of several variables
A table that describes the relationship between two variables
A summary of the number of cases in a dataset
What is a theory?
A statement about the expected relationship between variables
A system of constructs and propositions that collectively presents a logical, systematic, and coherent explanation of a phenomenon of interest
A loose framework for understanding phenomena
A proposition that explains a single situation is detail
What is the scientific method?
Hypotheses that test theories.
A standardized set of techniques for building scientific knowledge.
A formalized structure for creating statistical analyses.
None of the above
When does the sampling distribution of the mean become approximately normally distributed?
When the standard deviation of the population is large
When the population is normally distributed
When the sample size is relatively large
When only one random sample is drawn from the population
Why must research participants be made aware that their participation is voluntary?
To avoid bias
To increase generalizability
To be ethical
To increase validity
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