Ethics in Social Science Research
Ethics in Social Science Research

Ethics in Social Science Research

Lead Author(s): Saylor Academy

Source: Saylor

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A question pack on the ethics of social science research from Saylor Academy.

This content is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.

Ethics in Social Science Research Q1

Which of the following reasons would you use a chi-square test?

A

For testing differences in two variances.

B

Testing for equality of proportions.

C

Testing to make inferences about a population median.

D

None of the above.

Ethics in Social Science Research Q2

Which of the following refers to the process of developing indicators or items for measuring constructs?

A

Operationalizing

B

Conceptualizing

C

Measuring

D

Codifying

Ethics in Social Science Research Q3

Which of the following serves as the primary foundation for developing and testing hypotheses and research questions in political science?

A

Intuition

B

Statistics

C

Theory

D

None of the above

Ethics in Social Science Research Q4

Which of the following statements best describes a variable?

A

A variable defines constructs in terms of how they will be empirically measured.

B

A variable is an abstract measure of a concept.

C

A variable is an abstract concept that is specifically chosen to explain a given phenomenon.

D

A variable is a generalizable property or characteristic associated with an object, event, or person.

Ethics in Social Science Research Q5

Which of the following statements best represents the goal of the researcher when performing deductive research?

A

The goal of the researcher when performing deductive research is to infer theoretical concepts and patterns from observed data.

B

The goal of the researcher when performing deductive research is to simply eliminate the alternative explanations.

C

The goal of the researcher when performing deductive research is to test concepts and patterns known from theory using new empirical data.

D

The goal of the researcher when performing deductive research is to avoid inductive inferences.

Ethics in Social Science Research Q6

Which of the following statements is most true of political science before the 20th century?

A

Before the 20th century, political science was much the same as it is now.

B

Political science did not exist before the 20th century.

C

Before the 20th century, political science primarily concerned itself with quantitative descriptions of government.

D

Before the 20th century, political science was essentially philosophy focused on political questions and government.

Ethics in Social Science Research Q7

Which of the following statements is true about a statistically significant correlation between two variables?

A

Statistical significance between two variables implies causality.

B

Statistical Significance between two variables does not imply causality because a third variable may explain the relationship.

C

Statistical significance tests are not appropriate for comparing two variables.

D

None of the above are true.

Ethics in Social Science Research Q8

Which of the following statements is true of an alternative hypothesis?

A

An alternative hypothesis represents the prediction a researcher is making.

B

An alternative hypothesis represents all possible outcomes other than the researcher’s prediction.

C

An alternative hypothesis is the same as a null hypothesis.

D

An alternative hypothesis is the only hypothesis that is tested.

Ethics in Social Science Research Q9

Which one of the following is not one of the steps researchers take when specifying constructs?

A

Choosing the most suitable measurement approach

B

Choosing the specific process for measuring the construct

C

Conducting a pilot study to test the measurement strategy

D

Developing a definition of the concept that uses easily understandable terms

Ethics in Social Science Research Q10

Why do in-depth interviews lack generalizability?

A

There is too much data.

B

They are typically conducted selectively as opposed to randomly.

C

The sample sizes are typically too large.

D

Interviews are subjective.

Ethics in Social Science Research Q11

Why do natural science researchers often criticize positivist case research?

A

It is lacking in controlled observations, controlled deductions, replicability, and generalizability of findings.

B

It fails to use inductive reasoning.

C

It is not useful for theory building.

D

It does not appropriately use within-case and cross-case data analysis.

Ethics in Social Science Research Q12

Why is it a problem for a survey question to be double barreled?

A

Because respondents are forced into one answer when there may be more than response that represent their opinion

B

Because respondents are forced into more than one answer when there may be only one response that represents their opinion

C

Because it repeats the same word more than once making it confusing

D

Because the question simply repeats another question but worded in a different way

Ethics in Social Science Research Q13

Why is understanding the unit of analysis you wish to study important?

A

Because this shapes the kinds of hypotheses you can make

B

Because it will guide the data collection

C

Because it determines what inferences can be made

D

All of the above

Ethics in Social Science Research Q14

Why may we decide to use more than one method of measurement when specifying a construct?

A

To be more thorough

B

Because we may be wrong if we use only one method

C

Because any single method may only partially address the construct

D

Because using multiple methods allows for more sophisticated statistical analysis

Ethics in Social Science Research Q15

Why might some argue that political science cannot be scientific?

A

Because it cannot be devoid of personal value judgments

B

Because it cannot produce generalizable theory

C

Because there is no way to test hypotheses

D

Because it is too young a discipline

Ethics in Social Science Research Q16

Internal validity refers to which of the following?

A

Whether the observed associations can be generalized from the sample to the population

B

Whether the observed change in a dependent variable is indeed caused by a corresponding change in hypothesized independent variable, and not by variables extraneous to the research context

C

Whether the operationalization of a concept actually measures the concept

D

Whether the measurement of concept seems appropriate in its face

Ethics in Social Science Research Q17

Most qualitative researchers believe that social reality is embedded within and cannot be abstracted from their social settings. This perspective leads them to believe the best way to understand such reality is what?

A

To engage in “sense-making”

B

Hypothesis testing

C

Experiments

D

Historical analysis

Ethics in Social Science Research Q18

What is a frequency distribution?

A

A summary of the frequency of individual values or ranges of values for a variable

B

A graph that describes the distribution of several variables

C

A table that describes the relationship between two variables

D

A summary of the number of cases in a dataset

Ethics in Social Science Research Q19

What is a theory?

A

A statement about the expected relationship between variables

B

A system of constructs and propositions that collectively presents a logical, systematic, and coherent explanation of a phenomenon of interest

C

A loose framework for understanding phenomena

D

A proposition that explains a single situation is detail

Ethics in Social Science Research Q20

What is the scientific method?

A

Hypotheses that test theories.

B

A standardized set of techniques for building scientific knowledge.

C

A formalized structure for creating statistical analyses.

D

None of the above

Ethics in Social Science Research Q21

When does the sampling distribution of the mean become approximately normally distributed?

A

When the standard deviation of the population is large

B

When the population is normally distributed

C

When the sample size is relatively large

D

When only one random sample is drawn from the population

Ethics in Social Science Research Q22

Why must research participants be made aware that their participation is voluntary?

A

To avoid bias

B

To increase generalizability

C

To be ethical

D

To increase validity

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