Criminal Justice and Freedom of Religion
Criminal Justice and Freedom of Religion

Criminal Justice and Freedom of Religion

Lead Author(s): Saylor Academy

Source: Saylor

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An advanced question pack on civil liberties and civil rights from Saylor Academy.

This content is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.

Criminal Justice and Freedom of Religion Q1

How did the Court initially interpret the “cruel and unusual” clause in the Eighth Amendment?

A

They decided that they must draw its meaning from the evolving standards of decency that mark the progress of a maturing society.

B

Their interpretation was unclear at first.

C

At first, the Court was inclined to an historical style on interpretation, determining whether or not a punishment was cruel and unusual by looking to see if it or a sufficiently similar variant was considered cruel and unusual in 1789.

D

They simply decided whether the punishment fit the crime.

Criminal Justice and Freedom of Religion Q2

What are the primary purposes of the Fifth Amendment?

A

To assure that people charged with capital crimes are done only through indictments by Grand Juries.

B

To prevent people from being charged for the same crime twice.

C

To not force people to be a witness against themselves in a criminal trial.

D

All of the above

Criminal Justice and Freedom of Religion Q3

What are the two lines of interpretation that the Court has wavered on concerning the Fourth amendment and the legality of searches?

A

The “warrants-with- broad-exceptions approach” and the “reasonableness approach.”

B

The “warrants-with- broad-exceptions approach” and the “warrant-only approach.”

C

The “warrants-with- narrow-exceptions approach” and the “reasonableness approach.”

D

The “warrants-with- narrow-exceptions approach” and the “warrant-only approach.”

Criminal Justice and Freedom of Religion Q4

What is one reason the Sixth Amendment guarantees the right to a public trial?

A

It helps to assure the criminal defendant a fair and accurate adjudication of guilt or innocence.

B

It helps attract potential jurors.

C

It discourages perjury.

D

Both A and C

Criminal Justice and Freedom of Religion Q5

What was the outcome of the ruling in Gideon v. Wainwright?

A

After being charged with a crime, the defendant must get a trial date within 4 weeks.

B

The Constitution requires the states to provide defense attorneys to criminal defendants charged with serious offenses who cannot afford lawyers themselves.

C

Detained criminal suspects, prior to police questioning, must be informed of their constitutional right to an attorney and against self-incrimination.

D

A Defendant can opt to have a private trial as opposed to a public trial to protect his or her First Amendment rights.

Criminal Justice and Freedom of Religion Q6

What was the outcome of the ruling in Miranda v. Arizona?

A

After being charged with a crime, the defendant must get a trial date within 4 weeks.

B

The Constitution requires the states to provide defense attorneys to criminal defendants charged with serious offenses who cannot afford lawyers themselves.

C

Detained criminal suspects, prior to police questioning, must be informed of their constitutional right to an attorney and against self-incrimination.

D

A Defendant can opt to have a private trial as opposed to a public trial to protect his or her First Amendment rights.

Criminal Justice and Freedom of Religion Q7

Which of the following statements best describes the historical philosophy behind the Fourth Amendment?

A

It was born out of both the colonial experience and experience back in England.

B

It was solely a response to the colonial experience.

C

It was primarily a response to experience back in England.

D

It strictly came from French philosophy.

Criminal Justice and Freedom of Religion Q8

How did the outcome of the ruling in Lemon v. Kurtzman outline the requirements for legislation concerning religion?

A

The government's action must have a secular legislative purpose.

B

The government's action must not have the primary effect of either advancing or inhibiting religion.

C

The government's action must not result in an “excessive government entanglement” with religion.

D

All of the above

Criminal Justice and Freedom of Religion Q9

What is the central argument in the article entitled, “The Public Debate on the Religiosity of the Public Debate of Bioethics in the USA”?

A

Pluralistic societies of today should favor one moral tradition or religious framework when making policy arguments because it simplifies the issue for the public.

B

Pluralistic societies of today should not favor only one moral tradition or religious framework when making policy arguments because it leads to the discrimination of others who are also affected by such discourse.

C

The debate on bioethics should avoid any address of religious morality.

D

None of the above

Criminal Justice and Freedom of Religion Q10

What is the central point of the article entitled, “Navigating Religious Rights of Teachers and Students: Establishment, Accommodation, Neutrality, or Hostility?”

A

The Supreme Court rulings on religion in public schools can be summarized by saying that public schools need not accommodate religion just as they do other non-curricular activities.

B

The Supreme Court rulings on religion in public schools can be summarized by saying public schools have the right to coerce or compel students to participate in religious activities.

C

The Supreme Court rulings on religion in public schools can be summarized by saying that religious expression should be neither promoted nor inhibited in public schools.

D

The Supreme Court rulings on religion in public schools can be summarized by saying that religious expression should be inhibited in public schools.

Criminal Justice and Freedom of Religion Q11

What was the outcome of the ruling in Boerne v. Flores?

A

The Court struck down the Religious Freedom Reformation Act (RFRA).

B

The Court struck upheld the Religious Freedom Reformation Act (RFRA).

C

It determined that it is unconstitutional for state officials to compose an official school prayer and encourage its recitation in public schools.

D

It determined that it is constitutional for state officials to compose an official school prayer and encourage its recitation in public schools.

Criminal Justice and Freedom of Religion Q12

What was the outcome of the ruling in Engel v. Vitale?

A

It protected students from being forced to salute the American flag and say the Pledge of Allegiance in school.

B

It allowed schools to expel students who refused to salute the American flag and say the Pledge of Allegiance in school.

C

It determined that it is unconstitutional for state officials to compose an official school prayer and encourage its recitation in public schools.

D

It determined that it is constitutional for state officials to compose an official school prayer and encourage its recitation in public schools.

Criminal Justice and Freedom of Religion Q13

What was the outcome of the ruling in West Virginia State Board of Education v. Barnette?

A

It protected students from being forced to salute the American flag and say the Pledge of Allegiance in school.

B

It allowed schools to expel students who refused to salute the American flag and say the Pledge of Allegiance in school.

C

It determined that it is unconstitutional for state officials to compose an official school prayer and encourage its recitation in public schools.

D

It determined that it is constitutional for state officials to compose an official school prayer and encourage its recitation in public schools.

Criminal Justice and Freedom of Religion Q14

While the First Amendment protects individuals’ rights to practice any religion, it also prevents what else with regards to religion?

A

The open expression of religious beliefs by elected officials.

B

The open expression of religious beliefs by government workers.

C

The establishment of a national religion.

D

It makes no other address of religion.

Criminal Justice and Freedom of Religion Q15

Why did many of the early settlers of Massachusetts flee England?

A

They were fleeing religious persecution coming from the Church of England.

B

They sought to practice Catholicism freely.

C

They wanted to avoid heavy taxes.

D

They wanted to establish a new government that enforced the separation of church and state.

Criminal Justice and Freedom of Religion Q16

What did the Civil Rights Act of 1964 accomplish?

A

It abolished unequal application of voter registration requirements.

B

It prohibited discrimination in public accommodations.

C

It prohibited employment discrimination by any business employing more than 25 people.

D

All of the above

Criminal Justice and Freedom of Religion Q17

What did the Voting Rights Act of 1965 accomplish?

A

It granted African Americans the right to vote.

B

It institutionalized Jim Crow laws at the national level.

C

It authorized the federal government to assume control of the voter registration process in any state or voting district that had in 1964 employed a literacy or other qualifying test for African Americans to register to vote or to vote.

D

Both A and C.

Criminal Justice and Freedom of Religion Q18

What is Rosa Parks famous for doing?

A

She organized several protests of racial segregation in Alabama in the 1960s.

B

She organized the bus boycott of Montgomery, Alabama in 1955.

C

She was arrested for refusing to move from a luncheon counter that served only whites.

D

She refused to move from the front rows of a city bus in Montgomery, Alabama when the driver ordered her to give up her seat when another white person boarded the bus.

Criminal Justice and Freedom of Religion Q19

What is the central argument in the section of Free at Last entitled, “The Genius of the Black Church?”

A

The black churches during the civil rights era were helpful to the cause primarily because they helped garner support from religious whites.

B

The black churches during the civil rights era were helpful to the cause primarily because they promoted a communal spirituality that helped spawn a movement that sought its objectives by peaceful means.

C

The black churches during the civil rights era were helpful to the cause primarily because they provided financial support for the cause.

D

The black churches during the civil rights era were helpful to the cause primarily because they provided an organizational front for the cause.

Criminal Justice and Freedom of Religion Q20

What is the “separate but equal” doctrine?

A

An interpretation of the Constitution that required states to racially integrate public facilities.

B

An interpretation of the Constitution that did not require states to racially integrate public facilities but rather required them to provide separate facilities for whites and non-whites that were of equal quality.

C

An interpretation of the Constitution that required southern states to provide public facilities for all races that were equal in quality to Northern public facilities.

D

None of the above

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