Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: Bloom’s and NCERT
Lead Author(s): Dr. Rafeedalie
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In this homework assignment students will be asked to understand the blooms taxonomy and employ the NCERT taxonomy of educational objectives.
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Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: Bloom’s and NCERT
Reading this unit, the student will able to
1. Understand the blooms taxonomy of educational objectives
2. Employ the NCERT taxonomy of instructional objectives
3. Write instructional objectives as well as specification accurately while planning
Education is a process of bringing desirable behavioural changes in the individuals. It helps the individuals to identify their capabilities and potential. Classroom instructions and activities are the gate way of this process. Hence a teacher who deals with any subject should clearly plan his objectives of a particular instruction. Pre determined learning outcome of an instruction can be called as instructional objectives. More clearly, Instructional objectives are the specific or immediate goal which is obtainable as a result of instruction or through classroom interaction. This is considered as the target of a teacher for a specific lesson or a topic. Learning/ teaching outcomes of a classroom is designed by the instructional objectives. Without formulating instructional objectives instruction become aimless or target less as well as wastage of time and effort of both teachers and students. Instructional objectives should be planned to develop different domains of the learner. Discussion on Blooms taxonomy is necessary to understand the different domains of the learner.
Blooms Taxonomy of Educational Objectives
The word taxonomy derived from the Greek word ‘taxis’ which means systematic classification. Prof.Benjamin S Bloom and his associate, University of Chicago developed and classified the domains of educational objectives. Bloom (1956) presented his taxonomy related to cognitive domain giving emphasis to the hierarchy of cognitive process in attaining knowledge and development of thinking. Later Krathwhol (1964) introduced affective domain and Simpson (1966) developed psychomotor domain. They described the hierarchical development of the three domains of the learner though instruction. This classification objective is known as Blooms taxonomy of educational objectives.
Classification of Blooms taxonomy
1. Cognitive domain- Knowledge field
2. Affective domain- feeling field
3. Psychomotor domain-doing field
Every educational activity should be planned to develop all this domain of the learner. Hence these three domains are mutually interrelated and interdependent also.
Instructional Objectives in Cognitive Domain
The cognitive domain deals with the intellectual aspect of cognition. It concerned with sensation, perception and application of knowledge. The hierarchical development of cognitive domain is discussed below.
Acquisition of knowledge is the lowest level in the cognitive domain. It includes the ability of students to recall and remember the information learned in the classrooms. Recall and recognition are the specification of this instructional objective.
It is the second level of cognitive domain. It is the meaningful recall and recognition of the learned content. Here the learner could understand and explain what he learned in the classroom as his own language. Identifying relations, classification of objects, explanations, comparisons, translation etc are the specification of this level.
In third level the learners are able to apply or use the knowledge which is acquired and comprehended during the first two levels. It is the ability to apply the acquired knowledge trough instruction in real life situations. Establishing new relationship, formulating hypothesis, predictions are the some specification of this level.
Analysis is the meaningful breakdown of the materials into its various components and to identify the interrelationship between the elements and find out how they are organized and related. Specification of this level includes the analysis of elements, analysis of relationship, analysis of organizational principles.
Synthesis is the mental ability of the learner to integrate the acquired, comprehended, applied and analyzed knowledge in to a comprehensive whole. It involves the ability to give a new shape or structure to statements or procedures.
This is the highest level of cognitive domain. Students could evaluate an object, person, a theory or a principle if only he is par with all other lower hierarchy in the cognitive domain. It is the ability to judge a value of a material, aspects, methods, principles , theory, philosophy and so forth for a given purposes. At this level s/he could perform personal viewpoint about the information s/he synthesized.
Instructional Objectives in Affective Domain
Affective domain is related with the development of heart and mind of the child. It includes the areas of emotions, feelings, interest, attitude, appreciation and values. The teacher should be given emphasis to correlate the development of cognitive domain with affective domain. A person who studied the Gandhian principles, civic right and duties without developing his affective domain is worthless for the country as well as society. Hence the teacher should ensure the development of affective domain in his instructional objectives of the classroom instruction. Bloom and Krathwohl (1964) introduced the following hierarchy for affective domain.
In the basic level the learner is sensitized to the existence of a certain phenomena and stimuli. s/he is willing to receive the information whole heartedly by exhibiting awareness on the stimuli and become conscious on particular person, principle, philosophy, incidents etc. For example students are interestingly listening to Gandhian principles.
Effective reception prepares the learner to respond seriously. As result of receiving some good message from the first hierarchy, the learner tries to respond to the situation positively. For example students show kindness towards elders and weaker people, hold honest behaviour in day to day life situations etc.
By responding in good ways, the students set guidelines for their behavior. Accepting values, preference for values, commitment to values are the important behavioural changes in this level. For example students develop positive attitude towards non violent behavior, truthfulness, honesty etc.
Student builds a system of value at this level. Value conflict and value crisis are resolved. Through organizing different values students are able to develop their own code of conduct and standard of public life in the society. For example Pupil identifies the inseparability of the values like non violence, truthfulness and tolerance of Indian tradition. They show dislike towards corruption and violence in the country and think against to work.
This is the highest level of internalization process. Values are imbibed and forms part of the life style of the individual. For example the non violence value becomes the philosophy of the individual. They will not be ready to compromise on their philosophy at any stage as well as, ready to work for justice even though they are alone their way.
Instructional Objective for Psychomotor Domain
Psychomotor domain deals with the action or performance level. This domain includes muscular action and neuromuscular coordination. Educational objectives of this domain aim to developing proficiency in performing certain acts. Simpson (1966) presented the psychomotor domain as follows.
Perception is the first level in psychomotor domain. It consist the process of becoming aware of objects, qualities or relation through sense organs.
In this second hierarchy students make preparatory adjustment of readiness for a particular kind of action or experience. Mental as well as physical set for action is performed here.
It is the overt behavioural act of a student under the guidance of the teacher. Students initially perform an act which is perceived and set through earlier levels. It includes imitation of teachers, elders, parents, and trial and error activities in attaining writing, reading skill etc. For example; Student imitates the writing style of his teacher to write letter ‘A’ and repeat many times to learn how to write letter ‘A’.
In this level student show progress in performing the act through imitation and trial and error. Student learned to write letter ‘A’ by imitating his teacher and through trial and error activity. Now s/he can write letter ‘A’ at his/her will. Here learned response has become habitual. It is a micro analysis in which each step in the mechanism is properly examined and drilled.
Complex Overt Response
In this level the student can perform a complex motor act which required a complex movement pattern. It this hierarchy students attain a high degree of skill and the act can be carried out smoothly and efficiently. In this level students could perform the act without any hesitation. Fine muscular coordination and great deal of ease in performing act are the peculiarity of this level. Here student able to write many word easily and simply within a short period of time, ability to run, walk, jump and talk easily are also comes under this category.
Adaptation and Originating
This is the highest level. Here student are adapted with the ability of doing an act which is acquired through above steps. Now spontaneously s/he can perform the act with accuracy. More over s/he is able to originate a new pattern of action or style in doing the activity.
Dave Classification-Psychomotor Domain
Dave (1969), from NCERT also contributed taxonomy for psychomotor domain which is discussed below.
It is simply an imitation act of a student who energized through cognitive as well as affective domain development. It means that the student who learned how to write (cognitive domain), willing to write (affective domain) may imitate to write to get the ability to write (psychomotor domain).
This level student tries to do the imitated activity in various ways through repetition. Here students try many ways and styles to perform the activity and select appropriate one which is suitable and convenient to him/her.
In this level student attain speed, accuracy, proportion, exactness, neatness in a performing the act which is acquired through above two levels.
Here the student able to handle many actions in unison. This includes coordination, sequence and harmony among acts.
This is the highest level in psychomotor domain. Here student attain the proficiency in performing the particular task. The action becomes automatic with least physic as well as mental energy.
Criteria for Writing Instructional Objective
The following criteria should be kept in mind by the teacher while setting and writing the instruction objectives.
1. Specification of the learner/Performer
Specify the learner such as pupil, class, group etc
2. Learner performance
Illustrate the learners’ performance in classroom interaction, for example, students
are able to understand, apply, identify, and justify etc. it also termed as action
3. Learning content and condition
Clearly mention the content of study, for example, the pupil able to justify the
nonviolence principle of Gandhi
Besides the above, the teacher should set target of a minimum expected level performance of the learner in quantitatively and qualitatively. Exclusive inclusion of all the instructional objectives with adequate weightage should be taken care of.
Instructional Objectives and Specification
Instructional objectives can be defined as the specific or immediate outcome as result of an instruction. It could be design in such a manner that it shows what the students should be able to recall or perform after the completion of classroom courework. It describes the progressive changes in cognitive, affective and psychomotor domain in terms of Knowledge, comprehension, applications, skills, appreciation and so forth. But the problem arise in this case is that, how could a teacher understand whether the student gain any knowledge, able to apply the information he has received from the classroom interaction. It requires the presence of specification or specific objectives. Specifications are the observable and measurable changes in the behavior of the learner. It tells us what the pupil will do or how they behave if they realize an objective. Hence it is the behavioural changes showed by the students which can be observable and measurable by the teacher is called as behavioural objectives. For example, knowledge is an instructional objective; A teacher who taught the 8th class students the lesson of ‘democracy’. How s/he could understand whether the student achieved the knowledge objective through his classroom interaction? Unless and until the student explain the concept of democracy or give example of any democratic country, teacher cannot understand whether s/he fulfill her/his instructional objectives. Here, the student activity of explain and give example are the specific objectives/behavioral objectives, by which a teacher can observe the attainment of instructional objectives by the students. This able the teacher quantitative as well as qualitative measurement of the same.
Indian Adaptation of Blooms’ Taxonomy
NCERT has worked and adapted the blooms’ taxonomy with some modification to suit with Indian situation. It clearly mentioned the cognitive, affective and psychomotor domain with their instructional objectives as well as specification.
In cognitive domain NCERT listed the Knowledge, Comprehension and application. But it merged the analysis, synthesis and evaluation in to application objectives. Development of psychomotor domain intended by the development of skills related to the concerned subject. It may be drawing, locating, observing, experimentation, drama, and so on. Affective domain indicate the student appreciation of personalities, events, culture, tradition and good deeds of individuals etc. it also indicates the development of interest among the student to learn more related to subject by further reading, conducting interviews, preparation of album, bulletin boards, projects etc. NCERT also gave an important place to developing positive attitude among students towards constructive persons, events, and programmes which may bring world peace, Social welfare, economic as well as national development and vice versa.
Instructional Objectives and Specification
As discussed earlier, a classroom instruction needs an effective instructional plan to achieve fruitful result. Classroom coursework are wholly depend on the instructional objectives in the lesson plan. Lesson plan is aims at to develop the cognitive, affective and psychomotor development of the child through teaching the concerned subject. Each domain has its own objective and each objective has its own specific objectives. Specific objectives are written generally in the form of action verb. To understand the writing of instructional objectives and specific objectives see the following example.
Points to be Remembered
Describe the concepts of Cognitive, Psychomotor and Affective domain
Explain the concept of Instructional objectives and specification
Illustrate the Dave’s Classification of Psychomotor domain
MANUU, CTE, Srinagar