Models of Teaching
Lead Author(s): Dr. Rafeedalie
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In this homework assignment students will be asked to comprehend the concept of Models of Teaching.
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Models of Teaching
Reading this Topic, the Student/Teacher will able to
the concept of Models of Teaching
the various essential elements of Models of Teaching
- Acquire information
about various families of Models of Teaching
The classic definition of teaching is the design and creation of environments. Students learn by interacting with those environment and they study how to learn (Dewy, 1916). A model of teaching can be defined as the depiction of teaching and learning environment, including the behaviour of teachers and students while the lesson is presented through that model. Models of teaching enable the students to engage in robust cognitive and social task and teach the student how to use them productively. Models of teaching are the specific instructional plans which are designed according to the concerned learning theories. It provides a comprehensive blue print for curriculum to design instructional materials, planning lessons, teacher pupil roles, supporting aids and so forth. Joyce & Weil (2014) defines A model of teaching is a description of a learning environment, including our behavior as teachers when that model is used. Eggen (1979) defines that Models are prescriptive teaching strategies which help to realize specific instructional goals. Models of teaching are really models of learning. It helps students to acquire information, ideas, skills, value, way of thinking and means of expressing themselves. Hence models of teaching train the student on how to learn. In fact the most important long term outcome of instruction may be the student’s increased capabilities to learn more easily and effectively in the future. Hence the main aim of models of teaching is to create powerful learners.
CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD TEACHING MODEL
The following are the chief characteristics of a good teaching model
- Each model has built up based on particular learning theory
- Creation of congenial learning environment in the classroom
- Effective interaction between the teacher and students
- Planned use of appropriate strategies
- Teaching process are systematically, sequentially and logically arranged
- Clear and specified roles for teachers and students
- Large scope for supporting material
- Ensure active participation of entire students in the class
- It raises the students’ level of aspiration, motivation and interest in learning
- Every model foster and strengthen the cognitive structure of the student
ELEMENTS OF MODELS OF TEACHING
Element of a model of teaching represent its structure, process and teaching aids of the instruction. A model of teaching consists of syntax, social system, principle of reaction and support system. The detailed descriptions are as follows.
It is the steps or phases of the model being presented before the class. It illustrates the logical and sequential order of the teacher student activities of the instruction procedure. It describes the complete programme of action of the model.
Social system of a model explains its nature of learning environment. It describes the role and relationship of the teacher and students through the phases as well as designing the lesson. As each and every model is unique, the role of teacher and students in every model may vary according to the respective learning theory of the model is built. It also varies in phases to phases.
Principle of Reaction
This is the extension of social system. It deals with the rules of reaction to the students responses in the classroom interaction. The reaction of the teacher must be in accordance with the theory of which model has been built. The teacher reaction is desired when the students’ responses/ behavior are untouched with expected level responses and for giving reinforcement. It depends the family of the model is presented.
It includes all instructional aides used in a model of teaching. Eg. Books, Encyclopedia, Video clips, slides, News paper, Tab, Expert, Films, Specimen etc.
Effect of models of Teaching
Models of teaching have a very positive effect on students’ behavior. Bruce Joyce classified the effect as Instructional effect and Nurturant Effect. Instructional effects are the direct effect of an instruction on students’ cognitive, affective and psychomotor domain. Nurturant effects are the indirect effect other than the teacher intends to achieve through the model. It is the additional achievement gained by the students through the unique nature classroom interaction. Examples are the development of problem solving ability, analytical thinking, critical thinking, social skill, tolerance etc.
FAMILIES OF MODELS OF TEACHING
Joyce & Weil (2014) categorized the models of teaching in to four families. The classification has been made in accordance with the theoretical basis and fundamental aim of the teaching model. The four families explained below in detail.
THE INFORMATION PROCESSING FAMILY
Models in the information processing family focus on the cognitive activity of child. It includes scientific inquiry for collecting original information, organizing and properly storing of the information. Some models provide the learners with information and concept, some emphasis concept formation and hypothesis testing and still other generate creative thinking. Joyce & Weil (2014) listed eight models in Information Processing Model.
The focus of the social model family is to build synergy (collective energy) in the classroom for addressing ongoing problems of personal, social, national as well as international importance. Social models help the students to develop Self directed problem solving ability, sense of belongingness towards the society and make them responsible citizens of the country.
The personal models begin from the perspective of the selfhood of the individual. Individual consciousness and development of unique personality is the chief focus of this family. The models in personal family attempt to make them understand their self and thereby students can shape their future. The cluster of personal models pays great attention to the individual perspective and seeks to encourage productive interdependence, increasing people’s self awareness and sense of responsibility for their own destinies.
BEHAVIOURAL SYSTEM FAMILY
Modification of behavior is the main focus of this family. The stance taken is that human beings are self correcting communication systems that modify behavior in response to the information about how successfully tasks are navigated. The role of predetermined objectives, observable behavior, clearly defined task and methods, feedback and reinforcement are the foundations of models in behavior family.
Models of teaching are very effective teaching strategies which are meant for transacting specific topic to students. The nature of the topic, presentation method and classroom environment will direct the teacher that what model of teaching s/he has to select for teaching the concerned topic. However the teachers and student teachers should be well aware on the concept and various models of teaching. Hence they can implement the models of teaching in their professional life and make wonder in their classroom interactions.
Short Answer Questions
Define the concept of models of teaching
Differentiate between social system and support system
Write a short note on families of teaching
What do you mean by effect of teaching?
Essay Type Questions
1. Explain various elements of models of teaching
2. Discuss various families of models of teaching
MANUU, CTE, Srinagar