Hominin Evolution
Hominin Evolution

Hominin Evolution

Lead Author(s): Washington State Colleges

Source: Open Course Library

Student Price: FREE

An anthropological question pack by Teri L. Tucker for Washington State Colleges.

This content is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.

Hominin evolution Q1

The system of arbitrary symbols used to encode one’s experience of the world and of others is

A

Language

B

Communication

C

Speech

D

Talk

Hominin evolution Q2

Language, like culture, is

A

Learned

B

Coded in symbols

C

Shared

D

All of the above

Hominin evolution Q3

The scientific study of language is known as

A

Communication studies

B

Linguistics

C

Morphology

D

Semantics

Hominin evolution Q4

“Primitive” human languages

A

Have a limited vocabulary

B

Lack elaborate grammatical structure

C

Make use of a reduced set of sounds

D

Do not exist

Hominin evolution Q5

Members of a speech community

A

Have no difficulties in understanding one another

B

Do not all possess identical knowledge about the language they share

C

Use the varied resources of their common language in the same ways

D

Live in the same place

Hominin evolution Q6

The design feature of language called “openness” refers to the

A

Possibility of speaking without fear of a censor

B

Capacity of putting the speaker’s true feelings into words

C

Ability to create new linguistic messages freely and easily

D

Connection between sound and brain

Hominin evolution Q7

Nonhuman primates cannot communicate vocally about absent or nonexistent objects or past or future events. Thus, their call systems lack the linguistic design feature of

A

Complete feedback

B

Displacement

C

Discreteness

D

Semanticity

Hominin evolution Q8

Human languages are patterned at different levels, and the patterns that characterize one level cannot be reduced to the pattern of any other level. Hockett recognized this phenomenon in which of his linguistic design features?

A

Duality of patterning

B

Reflexiveness

C

Specialization

D

Displacement

Hominin evolution Q9

The set of rules that aim to describe fully the patterns of linguistic usage observed by members of a particular speech community is called

A

Semantics

B

Phonemics

C

Grammar

D

Morphology

Hominin evolution Q10

Edward Sapir and Benjamin Lee Whorf believed that

A

Language determines thought

B

Thought determines language

C

Language has the power to shape the way people see the world

D

How people see the world has the power to shape their language

Hominin evolution Q11

Linguistic determinism holds that

A

The grammars of people’s native languages determine how they think about the world

B

How people speak, especially the correctness of grammatical use, determines their likelihood for success

C

Language is the basis for culture

D

The vocabulary of a language is a result of the environment in which the speakers of the language live

Hominin evolution Q12

The study of language that uses ethnography to illuminate the ways in which speech and social interaction influence each other is called

A

Ethnopragmatics

B

Morphology

C

Pragmatics

D

Semantics

Hominin evolution Q13

A language with no native speakers that develops in a single generation between members of communities that possess distinct native languages is a

A

Creole

B

Pidgin

C

Dodoh

D

Renn

Hominin evolution Q14

A marker of struggles between social groups with different interests, revealed in what people say and how they say it exemplifies a

A

Ethnopragmatics

B

Language ideology

C

Pidgin

D

Heteroglossia

Hominin evolution Q15

According to William Labov’s work in the 1960s, African American children living in urban areas did not perform well linguistically in the classroom because they

A

Were linguistically deprived

B

Felt threatened in the classroom context

C

Had nothing to say

D

All of the above

Hominin evolution Q16

When people encounter visual illusions, they resolve the ambiguity based on

A

Mental structures that are characteristic of all human beings

B

Their experiences with similar illusions in the past

C

What the visual signals represent in a culturally shaped world

D

The pattern of dark and light that falls on the retina and is carried by the optic nerve to the brain

Hominin evolution Q17

Encompassing pictures of reality created by the members of a particular society are called

A

Schemas

B

Experiential gestalts

C

Worldviews

D

Metaphors

Hominin evolution Q18

Something that signals the presence of an important domain of experience is a

A

Simile

B

Cognitive process

C

Socialization event

D

Symbol

Hominin evolution Q19

The part of the discipline of anthropology that debates issues of human nature that relate directly to the decisions of daily life and making a living is

A

Cultural anthropology

B

Institutional analysis

C

Economic anthropology

D

Political anthropology

Hominin evolution Q20

An economic system dominated by the supply–demand–price mechanism called the “market” is

A

Capitalism

B

Communism

C

Market exchange

D

Redistribution

Hominin evolution Q21

A person’s particular social position in a group is that person’s

A

Rank

B

Role

C

Status

D

Positionality

Hominin evolution Q22

Noncapitalist forms of economic exchange that are deeply embedded in social relations and always require reciprocity are called

A

Commodity exchanges

B

Gift exchanges

C

Redistributive exchanges

D

Modes of exchange

Hominin evolution Q23

Patterns according to which distribution takes place, such as reciprocity, redistribution, and market exchange are referred to as

A

Commodity exchanges

B

Gift exchanges

C

Redistributive exchanges

D

Modes of exchange

Hominin evolution Q24

The exchange of goods and services of equal value is called

A

Reciprocity

B

Redistribution

C

Market exchange

D

Mode of production

Hominin evolution Q25

A reciprocal situation in which a return of equal value is expected within a specified time limit demonstrates what anthropologists consider

A

Generalized reciprocity

B

Balanced reciprocity

C

Negative reciprocity

D

Redistribution

Hominin evolution Q26

Which of the following is an example of redistribution?

A

Potlatch

B

Internal Revenue Service

C

Salvation Army

D

All of the above

Hominin evolution Q27

The using up of material goods necessary for human physical survival is called

A

Production

B

Distribution

C

Exchange

D

Consumption

Hominin evolution Q28

Marshall Sahlins coined the expression “the original affluent society” to describe

A

The Ju/’hoansi and others like them

B

The English in the nineteenth century and others like them

C

The Azande and others like them

D

The Tiv and others like them

Hominin evolution Q29

Among the Trobriand Islanders, women’s wealth

A

Is insignificant

B

Is exchanged for yams

C

Was first described by Bronislaw Malinowski

D

Both A and C

Hominin evolution Q30

The characteristic form of social organization among foragers is the

A

Band

B

Chiefdom

C

Tribe

D

State

Hominin evolution Q31

In bands, labor is usually divided by

A

Age and gender

B

Occupation

C

Location

D

Family

Hominin evolution Q32

A society in which one person and his relatives have privileged access to wealth, power, and prestige is called a

A

Band

B

Chiefdom

C

Rank society

D

Tribe

Hominin evolution Q33

Which of the following is characteristic of a state?

A

A stratified society

B

Possesses a territory

C

Institutions to collect taxes

D

All of the above

Hominin evolution Q34

In a rank society, a chief is given greater

A

Prestige than other people, but not greater power or wealth

B

Prestige and wealth than other people, but not greater power

C

Wealth and power than other people, but not greater prestige

D

Wealth than other people, but not greater prestige and power

Hominin evolution Q35

A ranked group within a hierarchically stratified society whose membership is defined primarily in terms of wealth, occupation, or other economic criteria is referred to

A

Complex society

B

Caste

C

Class

D

Occupational specialization

Hominin evolution Q36

The study of social power in human society is called

A

Political anthropology

B

Social anthropology

C

Cultural anthropology

D

Sociocultural anthropology

Hominin evolution Q37

In traditional Western thought, the prototype of power in human social relations is based on

A

Physical coercion

B

Negotiation

C

The ability to convince

D

“survival of the fittest”

Hominin evolution Q38

According to Gramsci, power based on physical force is called

A

Hegemony

B

Domination

C

Autonomy

D

Motivation

Hominin evolution Q39

According to Gramsci, rulers who provide some genuine benefits to their subjects, spread an ideology that justifies their rule, and nevertheless succeed in protecting their privileges are exercising

A

Hegemony

B

Domination

C

Motivation

D

Autonomy

Hominin evolution Q40

The freedom of self-contained individuals to pursue their own interests above everything else and to challenge one another for dominance is known as

A

Free agency

B

Waivers

C

Independence

D

Hegemony