# Descriptive and Inferential Statistics

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A question pack on Descriptive and Inferential statistics from Saylor Academy.

Descriptive and Inferential Statistics Q1

What level of measurement is self-identified race?

A

Nominal

B

Interval

C

Ordinal

D

Ratio

Descriptive and Inferential Statistics Q2

What method would be best to use to test whether people in different regions of the country are equally likely to vote Democratic or Republican in the next election?

A

You would generate a correlation coefficient.

B

You would look at a frequency distribution.

C

You would use a crosstab to generate a chi-square test of independence.

D

None of the above

Descriptive and Inferential Statistics Q3

What percentage of scores, roughly, falls within the one standard deviation of the mean when data are normally distributed?

A

100%

B

25%

C

68%

D

95%

Descriptive and Inferential Statistics Q4

What type of sample is divided the sampling frame into homogeneous and non-overlapping subgroups and draws a simple random sample from each subgroup?

A

Stratified

B

Cluster

C

Matched-pairs

D

Multi-stage

Descriptive and Inferential Statistics Q5

What type of sample is it if every unit within the population has an equal chance of being selected?

A

Non-probability

B

Stratified

C

Probability

D

Quota

Descriptive and Inferential Statistics Q6

What type of sample may be best if you have a population dispersed over a wide geographic region where a simple random sample is not feasible?

A

Stratified

B

Cluster

C

Matched-pairs

D

Multi-stage

Descriptive and Inferential Statistics Q7

What type of sample would you have if the population was segmented into mutually exclusive subgroups, and then a non-random set of observations was chosen from each subgroup to meet a predefined proportion?

A

Stratified

B

Proportional

C

Matched-pairs

D

Quota

Descriptive and Inferential Statistics Q8

What type of sample would you have if you started with a subgroup of school districts in the state of New York, and within each subgroup, you selected a simple random sample of schools. Then, within each school, you selected a simple random sample of grade levels, and within each grade level, you selected a simple random sample of students for study?

A

Stratified

B

Cluster

C

Matched-pairs

D

Multi-stage

Descriptive and Inferential Statistics Q9

What type of validity centers on how well one measure relates to other concrete criterion that is presumed to occur simultaneously?

A

Construct validity

B

Concurrent validity

C

Face validity

D

Predictive validity

Descriptive and Inferential Statistics Q10

What was unethical about the Tuskegee Experiment?

A

Study participants were subjected to both mortal threat and personal agony.

B

Study participants’ anonymity was not maintained.

C

Study participants were not paid.

D

Study participants were not given reports on the results of the study.

Descriptive and Inferential Statistics Q11

When should a researcher use a multiple-case design?

A

It is more appropriate at the outset of theory generation.

B

It is more appropriate for theory testing and for establishing generalizability.

C

It is appropriate if the situation is unique.

D

All of the above

Descriptive and Inferential Statistics Q12

Which of the following are used by political science researchers to assess and make comparisons?

A

Chi-square analyses

B

Cross tabulations

C

Bivariate regression analyses

D

All of the above

Descriptive and Inferential Statistics Q13

Which of the following best represents the general goal of science and political science?

A

To discover and describe regularities and to develop theories that explain these regularities

B

To make discoveries that improve human existence

C

To invent things

D

To explain why things happen

Descriptive and Inferential Statistics Q14

Which of the following is a disadvantage of qualitative research?

A

It tends to consume more time and resources than quantitative research.

B

It requires well-trained researchers who can conduct such research without injecting their personal biases or preconceptions into the study’s design, data collection, or data analytic procedures.

C

Given the heavily contextualized nature of inferences drawn from qualitative research, such inferences do not lend themselves well to replicability or generalizability.

D

All of the above

Descriptive and Inferential Statistics Q15

Which of the following is a weakness of focus group research?

A

It relies too much on the individual as opposed to social interaction.

B

It lacks generalizability.

C

It lacks flexibility.

D

All of the above

Descriptive and Inferential Statistics Q16

Which of the following is an advantage of qualitative research?

A

It is well-suited for exploring hidden reasons behind complex, interrelated, or multifaceted social processes.

B

It is often helpful for theory construction in areas with no or insufficient a priori theory.

C

It is appropriate for studying context-specific, unique, or idiosyncratic events or processes.

D

All of the above

Descriptive and Inferential Statistics Q17

Which of the following is an approach to theorizing?

A

Follow a bottom-up conceptual analysis of different sets of predictors potentially relevant to the target phenomenon using a predefined framework.

B

Extend or modify existing theories to explain a new context.

C

Apply existing theories in entirely new contexts.

D

All of the above

Descriptive and Inferential Statistics Q18

Which of the following is true about cross-sectional field surveys?

A

They do not involve controlling for or manipulating independent variables or treatments.

B

The dependent variables are measured at a later point in time.

C

They involve small samples.

D

The independent and dependent variables are measured at the same point in time.

Descriptive and Inferential Statistics Q19

Which of the following is true about focus group research?

A

It is strong on external validity.

B

It is commonly used in quantitative research designs.

C

It is good for testing hypotheses.

D

It is useful when researchers seek in-depth responses from a small group of people.

Descriptive and Inferential Statistics Q20

Which of the following is true of most qualitative research?

A

It has a very structured and inflexible design.

B

It offers naturalistic inquiry with personal contact and insight.

C

It is used to test hypotheses.

D

It is usually appropriate to use statistical analyses in analyzing qualitative research.

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