# Statistics for Social Science

Lead Author(s): **Stephen Hayward**

Student Price: **Contact us to learn more**

Statistics for Social Science takes a fresh approach to the introductory class. With learning check questions, embedded videos and interactive simulations, students engage in active learning as they read. An emphasis on real-world and academic applications help ground the concepts presented. Designed for students taking an introductory statistics course in psychology, sociology or any other social science discipline.

## What is a Top Hat Textbook?

Top Hat has reimagined the textbook – one that is designed to improve student readership through interactivity, is updated by a community of collaborating professors with the newest information, and accessed online from anywhere, at anytime.

- Top Hat Textbooks are built full of embedded videos, interactive timelines, charts, graphs, and video lessons from the authors themselves
- High-quality and affordable, at a significant fraction in cost vs traditional publisher textbooks

## Key features in this textbook

## Comparison of Social Sciences Textbooks

Consider adding Top Hat’s Statistics for Social Sciences textbook to your upcoming course. We’ve put together a textbook comparison to make it easy for you in your upcoming evaluation.

### Top Hat

Steve Hayward et al., Statistics for Social Sciences, Only one edition needed

### Pearson

Agresti, Statistical Methods for the Social Sciences, 5th Edition

### Cengage

Gravetter et al., Essentials of Statistics for The Behavioral Sciences, 9th Edition

### Sage

Gregory Privitera, Essentials Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, 2nd Edition

### Pricing

Average price of textbook across most common format

#### Up to 40-60% more affordable

Lifetime access on any device

#### $200.83

Hardcover print text only

#### $239.95

Hardcover print text only

#### $92

Hardcover print text only

### Always up-to-date content, constantly revised by community of professors

Content meets standard for Introduction to Anatomy & Physiology course, and is updated with the latest content

### In-Book Interactivity

Includes embedded multi-media files and integrated software to enhance visual presentation of concepts directly in textbook

Only available with supplementary resources at additional cost

Only available with supplementary resources at additional cost

Only available with supplementary resources at additional cost

### Customizable

Ability to revise, adjust and adapt content to meet needs of course and instructor

### All-in-one Platform

Access to additional questions, test banks, and slides available within one platform

## Pricing

Average price of textbook across most common format

### Top Hat

Steve Hayward et al., Statistics for Social Sciences, Only one edition needed

#### Up to 40-60% more affordable

Lifetime access on any device

### Pearson

Agresti, Statistical Methods for the Social Sciences, 5th Edition

#### $200.83

Hardcover print text only

### Pearson

Gravetter et al., Essentials of Statistics for The Behavioral Sciences, 9th Edition

#### $239.95

Hardcover print text only

### Sage

McConnell, Brue, Flynn, Principles of Microeconomics, 7th Edition

#### $92

Hardcover print text only

## Always up-to-date content, constantly revised by community of professors

Constantly revised and updated by a community of professors with the latest content

### Top Hat

Steve Hayward et al., Statistics for Social Sciences, Only one edition needed

### Pearson

Agresti, Statistical Methods for the Social Sciences, 5th Edition

### Pearson

Gravetter et al., Essentials of Statistics for The Behavioral Sciences, 9th Edition

### Sage

Gregory Privitera, Essentials Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, 2nd Edition

## In-book Interactivity

Includes embedded multi-media files and integrated software to enhance visual presentation of concepts directly in textbook

### Top Hat

Steve Hayward et al., Statistics for Social Sciences, Only one edition needed

### Pearson

Agresti, Statistical Methods for the Social Sciences, 5th Edition

**Pearson**

Gravetter et al., Essentials of Statistics for The Behavioral Sciences, 9th Edition

### Sage

Gregory Privitera, Essentials Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, 2nd Edition

## Customizable

Ability to revise, adjust and adapt content to meet needs of course and instructor

### Top Hat

Steve Hayward et al., Statistics for Social Sciences, Only one edition needed

### Pearson

Agresti, Statistical Methods for the Social Sciences, 5th Edition

### Pearson

Gravetter et al., Essentials of Statistics for The Behavioral Sciences, 9th Edition

### Sage

Gregory Privitera, Essentials Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, 2nd Edition

## All-in-one Platform

Access to additional questions, test banks, and slides available within one platform

### Top Hat

Steve Hayward et al., Statistics for Social Sciences, Only one edition needed

### Pearson

Agresti, Statistical Methods for the Social Sciences, 5th Edition

### Pearson

Gravetter et al., Essentials of Statistics for The Behavioral Sciences, 9th Edition

### Sage

Gregory Privitera, Essentials Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, 2nd Edition

## About this textbook

### Lead Authors

#### Steve HaywardRio Salado College

A lifelong learner, Steve focused on statistics and research methodology during his graduate training at the University of New Mexico. He later founded and served as CEO of the Center for Performance Technology, providing instructional design and training development support to larger client organizations throughout the United States. Steve is presently a lead faculty member for statistics at Rio Salado College in Tempe, Arizona.

### Contributing Authors

#### Susan BaileyUniversity of Wisconsin

#### Deborah CarrollSouthern Connecticut State University

#### Alistair CullumCreighton University

#### William Jerry HauseltSouthern Connecticut State University

#### Karen KampenUniversity of Manitoba

#### Adam SullivanBrown University

## Explore this textbook

Read the fully unlocked textbook below, and if you’re interested in learning more, get in touch to see how you can use this textbook in your course today.

# Preface

## About This Material

There are many resources available to learn R, and most of them teach R in the same fashion. R is taught as a programming language and not taught with the reasons that students undertake learning it.

In this section, we will discuss using R in the context of your intended purposes.

## What to Expect

The goal of this section is to give you a guided introduction to R. In time, other sections will begin to describe more detailed resources for R.

## What is R?

Before we begin, it is important to consider what R is. R is a programming language that is frequently used in statistics. R is becoming more and more popular for two major reasons:

1. R is open source.

2. R has most of the latest statistical methods.

When you first download R, it has the ability to do the most basic statistics and perform as a calculator. In addition, like any programming language, R allows users to create their own functions and program most anything. In fact you can make websites, presentations and write papers all from R.

In addition to the basic statistical functions and calculator aspects, R has what are called **packages.** These packages are similar to apps on a smartphone. A smartphone has a lot of basic functions when first turned on, but most users want to do more with their phone. This is where apps come in.

Just like the apps in the smartphone, **packages** in R have more advanced statistical procedures that you may wish to use. We will begin using some packages that actually make R easier to use.

R has a base language that allows a user to program almost anything. Of course, to do this takes a lot of time and trial-and-error. This can be easily solved when you consider that there are also many user-defined packages and functions.

We will just use a small number of packages throughout this text, but as of January 2017, there are over 10,000 packages available.

## Should you use R?

Select your personal preferences when it comes to working with data.

I need a tool to work with data.

I am looking for a cost-effective software.

I want to learn to code in a language that gives me a great deal of freedom.

I like to be able to easily define my own procedures and functions.

If you selected any of the preferences above, then it may be worthwhile for you to start using R.

Next, we will begin to lay out a bit more framework on why so many statisticians choose to work with R over every other language.

## Image Credits

[1] Image courtesy of The R Foundation under CC BY-SA 4.0.