Development and Disease
Development and Disease

Development and Disease

Lead Author(s): Saylor Academy

Source: Saylor

Student Price: FREE

Explore the causes and consequences of neuronal development, and neurological damage with this question pack, as well as a number of neurological disorders.

This content is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.

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No correct answers: No correct answer has been set for this question

These questions are courtesy of Saylor Academy (https://legacy.saylor.org/bio303/Intro/). The Neurobiology course was designed by Kathleen George. All questions are available under the Creative Commons license CC BY 3.0:(https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/)

A

I agree

B

I accept

Damage and Regeneration 1

After traumatic injury to the central nervous system, secondary injury can result from cellular processes that cause neuronal death. Which of the follow statements about these cellular processes is INCORRECT?

A

Levels of extracellular excitatory amino acids decrease.

B

Intracellular calcium increase.

C

Intracellular caspases increase.

D

Neurons become more susceptible to free radical damage.

Damage and Regeneration 2

Cutting of an axon results in which of the following?

A

Anterograde degeneration

B

Retrograde degeneration

C

Degeneration of presynaptic terminals

D

All of the above

Damage and Regeneration 3

Damage to which part of the brain prevent rodents from developing spatial memories?

A

Cerebrum

B

Hippocampus

C

Hypothalamus

D

Pons

Damage and Regeneration 4

How can neurons be excited to death?

A

The action potential charge becomes too high and kills the neuron

B

The neuronal membrane becomes damaged from the nerve impulses.

C

Too much glutamate causes neurons to take in too much calcium and causes intracellular enzymes to release damaging free radicals

D

All of the above

Damage and Regeneration 5

Regeneration of damaged neurons requires which of the following?

A

Initiation of the gene expression that causes axon elongation

B

Macrophages to remove fragments of degenerating axon and myelin

C

Nogo to aid the newly formed axons

D

Both A and B

Damage and Regeneration 6

Regeneration of peripheral nerves and synapses requires which of the following?

A

Glia growth factor (GGF)

B

Nerve growth factor (NGF)

C

Dendrite growth factor (DGF)

D

Synaptic growth factor (SGF)

Damage and Regeneration 7

Stem cell replacement therapy may use which of the following for treatment of patients?

A

Fetal stem cells

B

Adult brain stem cells

C

Both A and B

D

None of the above

Damage and Regeneration 8

Which part of the brain, if damaged, will result in vision loss (even when the patient’s eyes are not damaged)?

A

The cerebellum

B

The occipital lobe

C

The cerebral cortex

D

The parietal lobe

Damage and Regeneration 9

Damage to which region can trigger amnesia?

A

Hippocampus

B

Temporal lobes

C

Thalamus

D

All of the above

Neurological Disorders 1

Why does the disease of Multiple sclerosis arise?

A

The myelin sheath around the nerve fibers are damaged.

B

The dendrites of the nerve cells are damaged.

C

Plaque forms around the synapses of the nerve cells.

D

The ion channels in the nerve cell membrane have stopped working.

Neurological Disorders 2

What is the active ingredient in cannabis that affects the brain?

A

2-hydroxy-5-methyllaurophenoxime (HMLO)

B

Cocaine

C

Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)

D

None of the above

Neurological Disorders 3

Which of the following statements about autism is INCORRECT?

A

It affects intellectual ability.

B

It causes impairment of social responsiveness

C

It is caused by a genetic defect only.

D

There is no cure.

Neurological Disorders 4

Which of the following statements concerning fragile X syndrome is INCORRECT?

A

There is no cure.

B

It affects males only

C

It is caused by a mutation in the X chromosomes only.

D

It affects intellectual ability.

Neurological Disorders 5

Damage to the non-motor part of the basal ganglia is the cause of which of the following?

A

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHT)

B

Tourette's syndrome

C

Autism

D

Parkinson’s disease

E

Schizophrenia

Neurological Disorders 6

Which of the following is a symptom of “Lower Motor Neuron Syndrome”?

A

Muscle atrophy

B

Fibrillation

C

Hyporeflexia

D

All of the above

Neurological Disorders 7

What is the definition of aphasia?

A

Aphasia is the inability to move the muscles of the mouth, tongue, larynx, and pharynx for speech

B

Aphasia is the inability to comprehend or produce language

C

Aphasia is the inability to recognize different textures.

D

Aphasia is the inability to recognize different tastes

Neurological Disorders 8

Which of the following statements about a patient whose left brain hemisphere does not communicate with its right hemisphere is INCORRECT?

A

Stimuli perceived on the right side is interpreted by the left hemisphere and vice versa

B

Both hemispheres are needed for a stimuli presented on the right to be described in vocal words.

C

Both A and B

D

None of the above

Neurogenesis 1

When is the critical period for visual development?

A

During the early embryonic stage

B

During the early fetal stage

C

During the late fetal stage

D

During the early postnatal period

Neurogenesis 2

Which of the following statements about neurogenesis is TRUE?

A

Only stem cells can undergo cell division.

B

Only neuroblasts can undergo cell division.

C

Both A and B

D

None of the above

Neurogenesis 3

Fill in the blank. The critical language learning period for humans occurs at around ______ months, when most babies begin producing speechlike (babbling) sounds.

A

5

B

6

C

7

D

8

Neurogenesis 4

Fill in the blanks. The chemoattractant ______ and repellent ______ guide growing axons.

A

Netrins; semaphorin

B

Slit; robo

C

Attractin; repellin

D

Robo; repellin

Neurogenesis 5

Neural crest cells have how many pathways of differentiation?

A

2

B

3

C

4

D

5

Neurogenesis 6

Which of the following sequences of development is found in an embryo?

A

Primitive streak elongates to form the primitive pit, which elongates to become the notochord.

B

Primitive pit elongates to form the primitive streak, which elongates to become the notochord.

C

Primitive pit elongates to form the notochord, which elongates to become the primitive streak.

D

Notochord elongates to form the primitive pit, which elongates to become the primitive streak.

Neurogenesis 7

Which of the following statements is CORRECT about selective synapse formation?

A

Preganglionic neurons located in particular spinal cord segments preferentially connect with ganglion cells projecting from certain targets, like the eyes.

B

Selective synapse formation is based on differential affinities of the pre- and postsynaptic elements.

C

Selective synapse formation ensures that neurons do not innervate nearby glial or connective tissue cells.

D

All of the above

Neurogenesis 8

During gastrulation the primary germ layers are formed. Which of the following is NOT a primary germ layer of an embryo?

A

Periderm

B

Endoderm

C

Ectoderm

D

Mesoderm

Neurogenesis 9

Homeotic genes code for which of the following?

A

Fatty acids

B

Enzymes

C

Ribosomal RNA

D

Transcription factors

Neurogenesis 10

Retinoic acid regulates which genes?

A

Sonic Hedgehog (Shh)

B

Homeobox (Hox)

C

Devo

D

Both A and B

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