Carcinogens
Carcinogens

Carcinogens

Source: Saylor

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A Cancer Biology question pack from Saylor Academy.

This content is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.

Carcinogens Q1

Cancer cells no longer have programmed cell death, known as ______________.

A

Necrosis

B

Apoptosis

C

Replication

D

Mutation

Carcinogens Q2

Complete the following statement. Proteases can do all of the following to promote cancer development and metastasis EXCEPT:

A

Stimulate growth factors.

B

Induce angiogenesis.

C

Build the basement membrane.

D

Destroy extracellular matrix (ECM).

Carcinogens Q3

The formation of blood vessels surrounding a tumor is known as ______________.

A

Oncogenesis

B

Metastasis

C

Angiogenesis

D

Anaplasia

Carcinogens Q4

If cancer originates in one lobe of the lungs and then metastasizes to the adrenal glands and then the liver, what kind of cancer is it?

A

Adrenal

B

Lung

C

Liver

D

Renal

Carcinogens Q5

What is the main site of metastasis for breast cancer?

A

Heart

B

Lungs

C

Liver

D

Cervix

Carcinogens Q6

Which of the following allows tumor cells to select certain tissues over others during metastasis?

A

Adhesion molecules

B

The absence of growth factors

C

Platelets

Carcinogens Q7

Which of the following cancers is least likely to metastasize?

A

Breast

B

Lung

C

Blood

D

Colon

Carcinogens Q8

Which of the following inhibits angiogenesis?

A

VEGF

B

bFGF

C

Endostatin

D

p53

Carcinogens Q9

Which of the following is NOT a typical way that cancer metastasizes?

A

In the blood

B

In the lymphatic system

C

Through body walls

D

Via the gastrointestinal tract

Carcinogens Q10

Which of the following stimulates angiogenesis?

A

VEGF

B

p53

C

Ras

D

BRCA1

Carcinogens Q11

Why is the prediction of cancer metastasis so hard to determine in the lymphatic system?

A

Everyone has slightly different lymphatic networks.

B

More cells are found in lymph than in blood, making it hard to spot cancer cells.

C

Tumor cells do not interact with the lymphatic vessels.

D

Lymph nodes hide cancer cells, making it difficult to detect them there.

Carcinogens Q12

When cancer cells move into the bloodstream or lymphatic system and invade a new, healthy tissue, this is known as ______________.

A

Angiogenesis

B

Oncoprogression

C

Hitching

D

Metastasis

Carcinogens Q13

An incomplete carcinogen needs which of the following to develop into a cancer causing agent?

A

An initiator

B

An inducer

C

A promoter

D

Both A and C

Carcinogens Q14

Conversion of a potential carcinogen into its carcinogenic form is known as ______________.

A

Proliferation

B

Biotransformation

C

Promotion

D

Induction

Carcinogens Q15

High throughput chemical testing allows potential carcinogens to be tested ______________.

A

In an animal model

B

In a single concentration

C

In isolation

D

At high rates of speed

Carcinogens Q16

Hormone replacement therapy has been link to increased ______________ cancer.

A

Cervical

B

Endometrial

C

Breast

D

Bladder

Carcinogens Q17

Sixty-seven percent of cancers are caused by which of the following?

A

Genetics

B

Environmental factors

C

Nutritional status

D

Older age

Carcinogens Q18

Which IRAC carcinogen classification group is most significant to cancer in humans?

A

1

B

2A

C

2B

D

3

Carcinogens Q19

Which of the following determines level of cancer risk from an environmental exposure?

A

Time of exposure

B

Potency

C

Dose-response

D

All of the above

Carcinogens Q20

Which of the following is NOT a factor in cancer disparities?

A

Literacy

B

Race

C

Gender

D

Income

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