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Question pack on the fundamentals of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy and more.
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A scientist discovers that a soil bacterium he has been studying produces an antimicrobial that kills gram-negative bacteria. She isolates and purifies the antimicrobial compound, then chemically converts a chemical side chain to a hydroxyl group. When she tests the antimicrobial properties of this new version, she finds that this antimicrobial drug can now also kill gram-positive bacteria. The new antimicrobial drug with broad-spectrum activity is considered to be which of the following?
Which of the following antimicrobial drugs is synthetic?
The group of soil bacteria known for their ability to produce a wide variety of antimicrobials is called the ______________.
Which of the following combinations would most likely contribute to the development of a superinfection?
long-term use of narrow-spectrum antimicrobials
long-term use of broad-spectrum antimicrobials
short-term use of narrow-spectrum antimicrobials
short-term use of broad-spectrum antimicrobials
Which of the following routes of administration would be appropriate and convenient for home administration of an antimicrobial to treat a systemic infection?
Which clinical situation would be appropriate for treatment with a narrow-spectrum antimicrobial drug?
treatment of a polymicrobic mixed infection in the intestine
prophylaxis against infection after a surgical procedure
treatment of strep throat caused by culture identified Streptococcus pyogenes
empiric therapy of pneumonia while waiting for culture results
The bacterium known for causing pseudomembranous colitis, a potentially deadly superinfection, is ______________.
Narrow-spectrum antimicrobials are commonly used for prophylaxis following surgery.
Which of the following terms refers to the ability of an antimicrobial drug to harm the target microbe without harming the host?
mode of action
spectrum of activity
Which of the following is not a type of β-lactam antimicrobial?
Which of the following does not bind to the 50S ribosomal subunit?
Which of the following antimicrobials inhibits the activity of DNA gyrase?
Selective toxicity antimicrobials are easier to develop against bacteria because they are ______________ cells, whereas human cells are eukaryotic.
β-lactamases can degrade vancomycin.
Which of the following is not an appropriate target for antifungal drugs?
Which of the following drug classes specifically inhibits neuronal transmission in helminths?
Which of the following is a nucleoside analog commonly used as a reverse transcriptase inhibitor in the treatment of HIV?
Which of the following is an antimalarial drug that is thought to increase ROS levels in target cells?
Antiviral drugs, like Tamiflu and Relenza, that are effective against the influenza virus by preventing viral escape from host cells are called ______________.
Echinocandins, known as “penicillin for fungi,” target β(1→3) glucan in fungal cell walls.
Which of the following resistance mechanisms describes the function of β-lactamase?
Which of the following resistance mechanisms is commonly effective against a wide range of antimicrobials in multiple classes?
Which of the following resistance mechanisms is the most nonspecific to a particular class of antimicrobials?
Which of the following types of drug-resistant bacteria do not typically persist in individuals as a member of their intestinal microbiota?
Staphylococcus aureus, including MRSA strains, may commonly be carried as a normal member of the ______________ microbiota in some people.
In the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion test, the ______________ of the zone of inhibition is measured and used for interpretation.
Which of the following techniques cannot be used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration of an antimicrobial drug against a particular microbe?
microbroth dilution test
Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion test
macrobroth dilution test
The utility of an antibiogram is that it shows antimicrobial susceptibility trends
over a large geographic area.
for an individual patient.
in research laboratory strains.
in a localized population.
The method that can determine the MICs of multiple antimicrobial drugs against a microbial strain using a single agar plate is called the ______________.
If drug A produces a larger zone of inhibition than drug B on the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion test, drug A should always be prescribed.
Which of the following has yielded compounds with the most antimicrobial activity?
The rate of discovery of antimicrobial drugs has decreased significantly in recent decades.