Antimicrobial Drugs
Antimicrobial Drugs

Antimicrobial Drugs

Lead Author(s): Openstax Content

Source: OpenStax

Student Price: FREE

Question pack on the fundamentals of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy and more.

Question 1

A scientist discovers that a soil bacterium he has been studying produces an antimicrobial that kills gram-negative bacteria. She isolates and purifies the antimicrobial compound, then chemically converts a chemical side chain to a hydroxyl group. When she tests the antimicrobial properties of this new version, she finds that this antimicrobial drug can now also kill gram-positive bacteria. The new antimicrobial drug with broad-spectrum activity is considered to be which of the following?

A

resistant

B

semisynthetic

C

synthetic

D

natural

Question 2
No correct answers: No correct answer has been set for this question

Which of the following antimicrobial drugs is synthetic?

A

sulfanilamide

B

penicillin

C

actinomycin

D

neomycin

Question 3

The group of soil bacteria known for their ability to produce a wide variety of antimicrobials is called the ______________.

Question 1

Which of the following combinations would most likely contribute to the development of a superinfection?

A

long-term use of narrow-spectrum antimicrobials

B

long-term use of broad-spectrum antimicrobials

C

short-term use of narrow-spectrum antimicrobials

D

short-term use of broad-spectrum antimicrobials

Question 2

Which of the following routes of administration would be appropriate and convenient for home administration of an antimicrobial to treat a systemic infection?

A

oral

B

intravenous

C

topical

D

parenteral

Question 3

Which clinical situation would be appropriate for treatment with a narrow-spectrum antimicrobial drug?

A

treatment of a polymicrobic mixed infection in the intestine

B

prophylaxis against infection after a surgical procedure

C

treatment of strep throat caused by culture identified Streptococcus pyogenes

D

empiric therapy of pneumonia while waiting for culture results

Question 4

The bacterium known for causing pseudomembranous colitis, a potentially deadly superinfection, is ______________.

Question 5

Narrow-spectrum antimicrobials are commonly used for prophylaxis following surgery.

A

True

B

False

Question 1

Which of the following terms refers to the ability of an antimicrobial drug to harm the target microbe without harming the host?

A

mode of action

B

therapeutic level

C

spectrum of activity

D

selective toxicity

Question 2

Which of the following is not a type of β-lactam antimicrobial?

A

penicillins

B

glycopeptides

C

cephalosporins

D

monobactams

Question 3

Which of the following does not bind to the 50S ribosomal subunit?

A

tetracyclines

B

lincosamides

C

macrolides

D

chloramphenicol

Question 4

Which of the following antimicrobials inhibits the activity of DNA gyrase?

A

polymyxin B

B

clindamycin

C

nalidixic acid

D

rifampin

Question 5

Selective toxicity antimicrobials are easier to develop against bacteria because they are ______________ cells, whereas human cells are eukaryotic.

Question 6

β-lactamases can degrade vancomycin.

A

True

B

False

Question 1

Which of the following is not an appropriate target for antifungal drugs?

A

ergosterol

B

chitin

C

cholesterol

D

β(1→3) glucan

Question 2

Which of the following drug classes specifically inhibits neuronal transmission in helminths?

A

quinolines

B

avermectins

C

amantadines

D

imidazoles

Question 3

Which of the following is a nucleoside analog commonly used as a reverse transcriptase inhibitor in the treatment of HIV?

A

acyclovir

B

ribavirin

C

adenine-arabinoside

D

azidothymidine

Question 4

Which of the following is an antimalarial drug that is thought to increase ROS levels in target cells?

A

artemisinin

B

amphotericin b

C

praziquantel

D

pleconaril

Question 5

Antiviral drugs, like Tamiflu and Relenza, that are effective against the influenza virus by preventing viral escape from host cells are called ______________.

Question 6

Echinocandins, known as “penicillin for fungi,” target β(1→3) glucan in fungal cell walls.

A

True

B

False

Question 1

Which of the following resistance mechanisms describes the function of β-lactamase?

A

efflux pump

B

target mimicry

C

drug inactivation

D

target overproduction

Question 2

Which of the following resistance mechanisms is commonly effective against a wide range of antimicrobials in multiple classes?

A

efflux pump

B

target mimicry

C

target modification

D

target overproduction

Question 3

Which of the following resistance mechanisms is the most nonspecific to a particular class of antimicrobials?

A

drug modification

B

target mimicry

C

target modification

D

efflux pump

Question 4

Which of the following types of drug-resistant bacteria do not typically persist in individuals as a member of their intestinal microbiota?

A

MRSA

B

VRE

C

CRE

D

ESBL-producing bacteria

Question 5

Staphylococcus aureus, including MRSA strains, may commonly be carried as a normal member of the ______________ microbiota in some people.

Question 1

In the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion test, the ______________ of the zone of inhibition is measured and used for interpretation.

A

diameter

B

microbial population

C

circumference

D

depth

Question 2

Which of the following techniques cannot be used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration of an antimicrobial drug against a particular microbe?

A

Etest

B

microbroth dilution test

C

Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion test

D

macrobroth dilution test

Question 3

The utility of an antibiogram is that it shows antimicrobial susceptibility trends

A

over a large geographic area.

B

for an individual patient.

C

in research laboratory strains.

D

in a localized population.

Question 4

The method that can determine the MICs of multiple antimicrobial drugs against a microbial strain using a single agar plate is called the ______________.

Question 5

If drug A produces a larger zone of inhibition than drug B on the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion test, drug A should always be prescribed.

A

True

B

False

Question 1

Which of the following has yielded compounds with the most antimicrobial activity?

A

water

B

air

C

volcanoes

D

soil

Question 2

The rate of discovery of antimicrobial drugs has decreased significantly in recent decades.

A

True

B

False