Adaptive Specific Host Defenses
Adaptive Specific Host Defenses

Adaptive Specific Host Defenses

Lead Author(s): Openstax Content

Source: OpenStax

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Questions on major histocompatibility complexes, antigen-presenting cells, and more.

Question 1

Antibodies are produced by ______________.

A

plasma cells

B

T cells

C

bone marrow

D

B cells

Question 2

Cellular adaptive immunity is carried out by ______________.

A

B cells

B

T cells

C

bone marrow

D

neutrophils

Question 3

A single antigen molecule may be composed of many individual ______________.

A

T-cell receptors

B

B-cell receptors

C

MHC

D

epitopes

Question 4

Which class of molecules is the most antigenic?

A

polysaccharides

B

lipids

C

proteins

D

carbohydrates

Question 5

There are two critically important aspects of adaptive immunity. The first is specificity, while the second is ______________.

Question 6

______________ immunity involves the production of antibody molecules that bind to specific antigens.

Question 7

The heavy chains of an antibody molecule contain ______________ region segments, which help to determine its class or isotype.

Question 8

The variable regions of the heavy and light chains form the ______________ sites of an antibody.

Question 1

MHC I molecules present

A

processed foreign antigens from proteasomes.

B

processed self-antigens from phagolysosome.

C

antibodies.

D

T cell antigens.

Question 2

MHC II molecules present

A

processed self-antigens from proteasomes.

B

processed foreign antigens from phagolysosomes.

C

antibodies.

D

T cell receptors.

Question 3

Which type of antigen-presenting molecule is found on all nucleated cells?

A

MHC II

B

MHC I

C

antibodies

D

B-cell receptors

Question 4

Which type of antigen-presenting molecule is found only on macrophages, dendritic cells, and B cells?

A

MHC I

B

MHC II

C

T-cell receptors

D

B-cell receptors

Question 5

MHC molecules are used for antigen ______________ to T cells.

Question 6

MHC II molecules are made up of two subunits (α and β) of approximately equal size, whereas MHC I molecules consist of a larger α subunit and a smaller subunit called ______________.

Question 1

What is a superantigen?

A

a protein that is highly efficient at stimulating a single type of productive and specific T cell response

B

a protein produced by antigen-presenting cells to enhance their presentation capabilities

C

a protein produced by T cells as a way of increasing the antigen activation they receive from antigen-presenting cells

D

a protein that activates T cells in a nonspecific and uncontrolled manner

Question 2

To what does the TCR of a helper T cell bind?

A

antigens presented with MHC I molecules

B

antigens presented with MHC II molecules

C

free antigen in a soluble form

D

haptens only

Question 3

Cytotoxic T cells will bind with their TCR to which of the following?

A

antigens presented with MHC I molecules

B

antigens presented with MHC II molecules

C

free antigen in a soluble form

D

haptens only

Question 4

A ______________ molecule is a glycoprotein used to identify and distinguish white blood cells.

A

T-cell receptor

B

B-cell receptor

C

MHC I

D

cluster of differentiation

Question 5

Name the T helper cell subset involved in antibody production.

A

TH_H1

B

TH_H2

C

TH_H17

D

CTL

Question 6

A ______________ T cell will become activated by presentation of foreign antigen associated with an MHC I molecule.

Question 7

A ______________ T cell will become activated by presentation of foreign antigen in association with an MHC II molecule.

Question 8

A TCR is a protein dimer embedded in the plasma membrane of a T cell. The ______________ region of each of the two protein chains is what gives it the capability to bind to a presented antigen.

Question 9

Peripheral tolerance mechanisms function on T cells after they mature and exit the ______________.

Question 10

Both ______________ and effector T cells are produced during differentiation of activated T cells.

Question 1

Which of the following would be a T-dependent antigen?

A

lipopolysaccharide

B

glycolipid

C

protein

D

carbohydrate

Question 2

Which of the following would be a BCR?

A

CD4

B

MHC II

C

MHC I

D

IgD

Question 3

Which of the following does not occur during the lag period of the primary antibody response?

A

activation of helper T cells

B

class switching to IgG

C

presentation of antigen with MHC II

D

binding of antigen to BCRs

Question 4

______________ antigens can stimulate B cells to become activated but require cytokine assistance delivered by helper T cells.

Question 5

T-independent antigens can stimulate B cells to become activated and secrete antibodies without assistance from helper T cells. These antigens possess ______________ antigenic epitopes that cross-link BCRs.

Question 1

A patient is bitten by a dog with confirmed rabies infection. After treating the bite wound, the physician injects the patient with antibodies that are specific for the rabies virus to prevent the development of an active infection. This is an example of:

A

Natural active immunity

B

Artificial active immunity

C

Natural passive immunity

D

Artificial passive immunity

Question 2

A patient gets a cold, and recovers a few days later. The patient's classmates come down with the same cold roughly a week later, but the original patient does not get the same cold again. This is an example of:

A

Natural active immunity

B

Artificial active immunity

C

Natural passive immunity

D

Artificial passive immunity

Question 3

A(n) ______________ pathogen is in a weakened state; it is still capable of stimulating an immune response but does not cause a disease.

Question 4

______________ immunity occurs when antibodies from one individual are harvested and given to another to protect against disease or treat active disease.

Question 5

In the practice of ______________ , scabs from smallpox victims were used to immunize susceptible individuals against smallpox.