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An Immunology question pack from Saylor Academy.
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This molecule is expressed to some degree by almost all nucleated cells:
Which of the following molecules is usually expressed only by antigen-presenting immune-system cells?
Which of the following molecules increases the sensitivity of Cytotoxic T cells to antigen 100-fold?
Which of the following statements about antigen recognition is false?
The receptors of B and T cells are very similar in structure.
The receptors of T cells require co-receptors in order to strongly respond to antigens.
The receptors of B and T cells recognize and bind to antigen fragments.
Unlike B cells, the receptors of T cells have only one binding site.
The parasite that causes malaria enters red blood cells and is relatively undetected by T cells. Which of the following is a possible reason for its ability to avoid detection by T cells?
Red blood cells do not express MHC II molecules.
Red blood cells do not express MHC I molecules.
Red blood cells do not have the cellular machinery to break down antigen proteins.
The unique structure of a red blood cell prevents it from being brought into contact with T cells.
You discover a cell type that you believe is involved in immune response and antigen recognition. However, when you place these cells in cultures with whole antigens, they do not respond to them. Knowing about the ways in which lymphocytes respond to antigens, what other experiment should you try before concluding that your suspicion was incorrect?
Place these cells in a culture with antigen fragments.
Place these cells in a culture with T cells.
Inject these cells into mice, and observe the resulting level of infection.
Place these cells in a culture with antibodies tailored to specific antigens.
Interferon-gamma would increase the response to what type of infection?
All of these answers
Fever is caused by which of the following cytokines?
IL-1 and IL-6
IL-8 and IL-12
Both A and B
Which of the following is used to present self-antigen as a way to monitor proteins produced inside host cells?
T cell receptors
A researcher finds that some of her mice lack appropriate B cell function; they seem unresponsive to antigens that should stimulate B cells. She discovers that although these mice produce healthy B cells and normal-looking receptors, those receptors are only present within B cells rather than on the B-cell surface. The researcher concludes that these cells are lacking which of the following?
ζ (zeta) chains
Igα and Igβ
ZAP-70 phosphorylates LAT and SLP-76; SLP-76 then activates Tec kinases. This signaling cascade occurs in what type of cells?
Both B and T cells
None of these answers
What would be the most direct way to prevent the activation of the transcription factor NFAT?
Inhibit Src-family kinases.
Increase the expression of Csk.
Complete the following sentence. Antagonist peptides are thought to:
activate the T-cell receptor.
alter the phosphorylation of ζ chains.
increase the persistence of some viral infections.
increase the responsiveness of T cells to MHC:antigen complexes.
Apoptosis is induced by which of the following signaling pathways?
NF-κB (Nuclear Factor κB)
GPCR (G Protein Coupled Receptor)
JAKs (Janus Kinases)
TNF (Tumor Necrosis Factor) Family
If you wanted to stop B-cell development in vitro, you would do which of the following?
Block STAT signaling.
Introduce an antibody against IL-7.
Introduce bone-marrow stromal cells.
All of these answers
Which of the following statements about double-positive thymocytes (T cells) is false?
The vast majority of them die.
They are capable of recognizing a larger repertoire of antigens than single-positive thymocytes.
They can be either negatively or positively selected.
If they are positively selected, they will not always remain double-positive.
Mouse One has a defect that prevents T lymphocytes from maturing. Mouse Two has a defect that prevents complete thymus development. Neither mouse has mature T cells. What is one way to induce the development of mature T cells in Mouse One?
Introduce bone-marrow stem cells from Mouse Two into Mouse One.
Inject antibodies against defective T cells into Mouse One.
Graft thymus from Mouse Two into Mouse One.
Inject an antibody against CD4 into Mouse One.
One immature T cell has a weak affinity for the self MHC:self peptide complex, and one has a strong affinity for the complex. The one with weak affinity is positively selected; the one with strong affinity is induced to undergo apoptosis. What is the adaptive immune system trying to avoid?
Strong reactions against pathogens
An autoimmune disease
All of these answers
Why is negative selection of T cells important?
It ensures that only T cells that respond to MHC signaling mature.
It prevents the later activation of immune cells against self peptides.
It prevents cells whose receptors respond to MHC I from expressing CD4.
It prevents cells whose receptors respond to MHC II from expressing CD8.
Complete the following sentence. Cytokines binding to their receptors change the actions of the receiving cells by:
changing the out-put of the endoplasmic reticulum.
changing the proteasome's location in the cell.
changing the gene expression profile of the cell.
changing the antigen receptor position on the surface of the cell.
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