Weather, Climate and Beyond: An Introduction to Physical Geography
Weather, Climate and Beyond: An Introduction to Physical Geography

Weather, Climate and Beyond: An Introduction to Physical Geography

Lead Author(s): Ricardo Nogueira

Student Price: $61.00

This interactive text is crafted for non-science majors as an introduction to the field of physical geography with emphasis on weather and climate.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1: Elements of Geography

1.1   Principles of Geography
1.2   Geography as Spatial Science

  • Location
  • Region
  • Place
  • Movement
  • Human- Environment Interaction
  • The Continuum of Geography

1.3   Scientific Method

Scientific Research

  • Hypothesis
  • Data Collection
  • Test the Hypothesis
  • Theory

1.4 Types of Maps

Maps

  • Reference Maps
  • Thematic Maps

1.5 Remote Sensing and Geographic Information System (GIS)

Global Positioning System (GPS)

Remote Sensing

Summary

Chapter 1 bonus

Geographic Grid System

  • Great and Small Cicles
  • Latitude and Longitude
  • Time Zones

Chapter 2: Earth-Sun relationships

2.1   The Earth System

System

  • Open system
  • Closed System
  • System feedback

2.2   Solar System

The Beginning

Solar System Formation

  • Light-Year
  • Milky Way Galaxy
  • Solar Winds
  • Sunspots

Sun-Earth Energy Relationship

  • How much solar energy reaches our planet?

2.3  Five  Reasons for Seasons

Seasonality

  • Rotation
  • Revolves
  • Sphericity
  • Earth's Axis Tilt
  • Axial parallelism

Seasons

Chapter 3: Earth’s Atmosphere

3.1   Atmospheric Composition

Air Pressure

Permanent Gases

Variable Gases

  • Carbon dioxide (CO2)
  • Methane
  • Ozone

3.2   Atmosphere Structure

Temperature Criteria

  • Troposphere
  • Stratosphere
  • Mesosphere
  • Thermosphere

Function

3.3   Air Pollution

Natural Air Pollution Sources

  • Wildfires
  • Volcanoes

Anthropogenic Pollution

  • Photochemical Smog
  • Acid Rain
  • Industrial Pollution

Natural Factors that Affect Air Pollution

  • Winds
  • Temperature Inversion

Chapter 4: Insolation and Energy Balance

4.1   Energy and Heat

Energy

Types of Heat

  • Sensible Heat and Latent Heat

4.2   Insolation

Scattering and Diffuse Radiation

Refraction

  • Reflection and Albedo
  • Absorption

4.3   The Heat of the Atmosphere

Inputs and Outputs

4.4   Global Energy Balance

Earth's surface Energy Balance

  • Latent Heat
  • Sensible Heat
  • Ground Heat

Global Energy Balance Summary

Chapter 5: Air Temperature 

5.1 Temperature

Temperature Scale

  • Celsius and Fahrenheit Scales

5.2 Principal Temperature Controls

  • Latitude
  • Elevation
  • Cloud Cover
  • Land-Water Heating Differences
  • Evaporation, Opacity, Movement, and Specific Heat
  • Maritime and Continental Temperature Differences

5.3 Earth’s Temperature Pattern

January
July
Annual Temperature Range

5.4 Temperature and Human Perception

  • Wind Chill
  • Heat Index

5.5 Human Impacts on Earth’s Energy Balance

  • Global Temperature Increase
  • Urban Environments - Urban Heat Island

Chapter 6: Atmospheric and Oceanic Circulation

6.1 Air Pressure

Barometer

6.2 Wind

Atmospheric Movement and Air Pressure Patterns

  • Wind
  • Pressure Gradient Force (PGF)
  • Coriolis Force (CF)
  • Friction Force (FG)

6.3   Cyclones and Anticyclones

Upper Atmosphere

Surface wind

Vertical Motions

6.4 Global Circulation

One-Cell Model

Three-cell Model

  • Reality vs Model

Jet Stream

6.5 Local and Regional Winds

Monsoon

Local Winds

  • Katabatic Winds
  • Land and Sea Breezes

6.6 Ocean Circulation

Thermohaline circulation

Chapter 7: Atmospheric Moisture

7.1   Physical Properties of Water

Water Phases

7.2   Humidity

Humidity measurement

  • Vapor Pressure
  • Specific Humidity
  • Relative humidity
  • Dew Point Temperature

7.3   Atmospheric Stability

Adiabatic Process

  • Dry Adiabatic Lapse Rate
  • Saturated Adiabatic Lapse Rate

Stability Conditions

  • Unstable
  • Conditional Unstable
  • Stable

7.4   Clouds and Fog

Cloud Classification

  • High Clouds
  • Middle Clouds
  • Low Clouds
  • Vertically developed Clouds

Fog

  • Radiation
  • Advection
  • Steam or evaporation

7.5   Precipitation Process

Cloud Formation

  • Collision and Coalescence
  • Bergeron Process

Forms of Precipitation

  • Rain
  • Sleet and Freezing Rain
  • Hail

Chapter 8: Weather

8.1   Air Masses

Air Masses affecting North America

  • Maritime Tropical
  • Maritime Polar
  • Continental Arctic
  • Continental Tropical
  • Air Mass Modification

8.2 Lifting Mechanisms

Orographic Lifting

Convectional Lift

Convergent Lift

Frontal Lifting

  • Cold Front
  • Warm Front

8.3   Midlatitude Cyclones

Life Cycle of a Midlatitude Cyclone

  • Initial Condition or Cyclogenesis
  • Beginning Stage
  • Midlatitudes Cyclones Source areas and Movement

8.4   Severe Weather

Thunderstorm

Lightning

Blizzard

Derechos

Tornadoes

  • Tornadoes Formation
  • Fujita Scale
  • Tornado Forecasting
  • Tornado Alley
  • Waterspouts

Tropical Cyclones

  • Tropical Cyclones Formation
  • Physical Structure

Damage Potential

  • Storm Surge
  • Flooding

Tropical Cyclone Forecast.

Chapter 9: Climate

9.1   Elements of Climate

  • Solar Radiation
  • Air Masses
  • Pressure Systems
  • Ocean Currents
  • Topography

9.2   Climate Classification

Koppen Climate Classification

  • Group A: Tropical Climates (megathermal)
  • Group B: Dry Climates (B)
  • Group C: Temperate (mesothermal)
  • Group D: Continental Climate (Microthermal)
  • Group E: Polar and Alpine (ET, EF)

Chapter 10: Climate Change

 10.1 -Introduction

10.2 -Climate Change in Earth History

10.5 - Changes in Atmospheric Greenhouse Gas Levels

10.6 - Anthropogenic Climate Change

10. 7 - Future Warming

  • Ecosystem   Impacts
  • Ocean  Impacts
  • Glacial and Permaforst  Impacts
  • Weather Impacts