Genomes and Experimental Techniques
Lead Author(s): Saylor Academy
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Explore Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic genetics along with experimental techniques with this question pack.
This content is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
These questions are courtesy of Saylor Academy (https://legacy.saylor.org/bio305/Intro/). The Genetics course was designed by Marianna Pinter. All questions are available under the Creative Commons license CC BY 3.0:(https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/)
After 25 PCR cycles, how much DNA is produced?
25 times more
50 times more
Compare and contrast in vivo and in vitro DNA duplication.
The in vivo process always takes place in a cell; the in vitro process always takes place in a thermocycler
The in vitro process may involve thermostable DNA polymerase; the in vivo process always utilizes DNA polymerase isolated from Thermus aquaticus.
The in vivo process uses ribonucleotide primer; the in vitro process uses oligonucleotide primer for DNA polymerase.
The in vivo process does not use dNTPs; the in vitro process uses dNTPs
Complete the following sentence. Barbara McClintock performed experiments using maize (corn) with different phenotypes of kernel color. She found that the phenotypic effect of one element (Ds) depended on the presence of another element (Ac). However, she had problems mapping these elements onto the chromosomes, because:
it is technically difficult to determine the phenotypes.
the structure of the dsDNA was not known yet.
these elements were jumping on the chromosomes.
Ds and Ac cancelled each other out.
Complete the following sentence. Microsatellites – otherwise known as simple sequence tandem repeats (SSTRs) – are generally di-, tri-, or tetranucleotides. Microsatellites are useful as genetic markers, because:
they never contain mistakes.
they are highly variable.
they are short.
they are long.
DNA microarrays are used to do which of the following?
To identify point mutations
To analyze DNA fingerprints
To amplify genomic DNA
To analyze differential gene expression in tissues
PCR is the most commonly used DNA amplification technique. Which of the following lists the steps of PCR in the correct order?
Polymerization, denaturation, melting
Melting, base-pairing, elongation
Annealing, melting, polymerization
Denaturation, annealing, elongation
Fill in the blanks. ______ are circular extrachromosomal DNA molecules that are present in varying numbers in the cell, and they can be entirely lost without changing species identity. ______ DNA is usually linear, and it determines species identity.
The following image outlines conventional breeding, transgenesis, and cisgenesis. The aim of all of these techniques is to generate an organism with desired traits. Which of the following technologies uses recombinant DNA?
Transgenesis and cisgenesis
Transgenesis and conventional breeding
The following image outlines the transposition of mobile elements. Which of the following accurately identifies the names of mobile elements in boxes A and B?
B shows a transposon, and A shows a retrotransposon.
A shows a transposon, and B shows a retrotransposon.
A shows a transposon, and B shows a duplicating transposon.
B shows a duplicating transposon, and A shows a retrotransposon.
The organization of the nuclear genome is not randomized. Recent genome studies have revealed general patterns between organisms. Which of the following is NOT a domain that was noticed?
Which of the following statement best describes recombinant DNA?
Recombinant DNA always combines DNA from at least two sources.
Recombinant DNA is the end-result of every cloning process
Recombinant DNA always uses a restriction endonuclease and a ligase.
Recombinant DNA is always made in the test tube, not in a living cell
Which of the following statements about class II transposons is true?
Class II transposons are segments of DNA that move from one place to another through the cut-and-paste mechanism
Class II transposons are characterized by their short lengths and stretch of 15 base pairs that occur at each end of the transposon.
Class II transposons are part of a highly unique group that forms large portions of the genomes of eukaryotes.
Class II transposons are incorporated through retrotransposition.
Which of the following was the first transgenic animal that was available to the American public?
Glow in the dark cats
Complete the following sentence. Neurospora works well for genetics studies, because:
it spends most of its life cycle in diploid condition.
it spends most of its life cycle in the haploid conditio
when the zygote undergoes mitosis or meiosis, it spreads
its genome is sequenced.
Identify the analytical technique, which is illustrated on the figure.
Yeast two-hybrid system
Eukaryotic UAS-Gal4 control
Bacterial transcriptional activation
Plant gene induction
Complete the following sentence. During the process of bacterial conjugation, genetic material is transferred in a unidirectional way from the donor to a recipient. This happens through:
Complete the following sentence. Gene transfer in bacteria is unidirectional, with DNA moving from the donor cell to the recipient cell. Most of the time the donor only gives a part of the DNA, making a:
Complete the following sentence. Transduction is the transfer of genetic information in bacteria from a donor to a recipient through:
a host DNA.
a virulent strain.
Frederick Griffith published his observation in 1928 that the nonpathogenic R strain of Streptococcus pneumonia is converted to S pathogenic strain, if the live R strain is mixed with dead S strain bacteria. Griffith’s experiment describes which of the following?
Panels 4 through 6 of the image below illustrate which of the following biological processes?
The image below illustrates which of the following biological processes?
The image below shows gene expression regulation in bacteria. Which of the following statements best describes this process?
This is the Trp operon, which is repressed by tryptophan (5). Tryptophan inactivates the RNA polymerase (2) by removing it from the DNA and leaving the transcription factor (3) behind
This is the Trp operon (4), which is repressed by tryptophan (5). Tryptophan inactivates the RNA polymerase (2) by removing it from the DNA and leaving the transcription factors (3 and 4) behind.
This is the Lac operon, which is induced by allolactose (5). Allolactose inactivates the repressor (2) and allows the RNA polymerase (3) to transcribe the genes
This is the Lac operon (4), which is induced by lactose (5). Lactose inactivates the repressor (2) and allows the RNA polymerase (3) to transcribe the genes
Which of the following is not used to experimentally manipulate gene expression in bacteria?
Which of the following statements best describes bacteria?
Introns are removed from the transcript before translation begins.
Genes that play a role in the same metabolic pathway are organized into an operator
The expression of genes that play a role in the same metabolic pathway is orchestrated by upstream enhancers.
Genes that play a role in the same metabolic pathway are organized into an operon
Certain species of bacteria always have the ability to utilize lactose as a carbon source. These species can do this with the help of which of the following?
The Lac operator
The Lac operon
Complete the following sentence. A library of yeast with transposons randomly integrated into yeast genes:
produces overexpression mutants and is also a tool to analyze the natural expression of that gene if the transposon has a reporter gene.
generates jumping genes and mosaic yeast cell; this is similar to the transposon effect in corn that makes color-colorless strikes in seeds.
generates transgenic yeast that glows in the dark; thus, it attracts great interest in the bakeries
produces gene disruption mutants and is also a tool to analyze the expression of that gene if the transposon has a reporter gene.
Complete the following sentence. Most prokaryotes reproduce asexually and are:
The image below illustrates which of the following biological processes?
Series of bacterial conjugation
A theory for the origin of eukaryotes
A theory for the origin of prokaryotes
Plasmid multiplication in fused bacteria
Complete the following sentence. Genes within the chloroplast, mitochondria, and nucleus can be transferred back and forth between the organellar and nuclear genomes. Researchers know this, because:
they have physically seen the crossover events on electron micrographs
they found genes in the chloroplast that were known to be mitochondrial
the endosymbiosis hypothesis predicts such gene transfers.
proper organellar function requires nuclear gene products.
Complete the following sentence. The C-value paradox states that:
as the body of an organism becomes more complex, the size of the genome will increase
there can be a large difference in the size of the genome even between organisms that are similar in body pattern and size
as the body of an organism becomes more complex, the size of the genome will decrease
prokaryotic genome is not always smaller than the eukaryotic genome
What percentage of the genes that you find in humans do you also find in flies and in mice?
Approximately 50% in flies and 99% in mice
0% in flies and 75% in mice
Approximately 10% in flies and 75% in mice
100% in both flies and mice