Genomes and Experimental Techniques
Genomes and Experimental Techniques

Genomes and Experimental Techniques

Lead Author(s): Saylor Academy

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Explore Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic genetics along with experimental techniques with this question pack.

This content is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.

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These questions are courtesy of Saylor Academy (https://legacy.saylor.org/bio305/Intro/). The Genetics course was designed by Marianna Pinter. All questions are available under the Creative Commons license CC BY 3.0:(https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/)

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Experimental Techniques in Genetics 1

After 25 PCR cycles, how much DNA is produced?

A

25 times more

B

2252^{25} times more

C

25225^{2} times more

D

50 times more

Experimental Techniques in Genetics 2

Compare and contrast in vivo and in vitro DNA duplication.

A

The in vivo process always takes place in a cell; the in vitro process always takes place in a thermocycler

B

The in vitro process may involve thermostable DNA polymerase; the in vivo process always utilizes DNA polymerase isolated from Thermus aquaticus.

C

The in vivo process uses ribonucleotide primer; the in vitro process uses oligonucleotide primer for DNA polymerase.

D

The in vivo process does not use dNTPs; the in vitro process uses dNTPs

Experimental Techniques in Genetics 3

Complete the following sentence. Barbara McClintock performed experiments using maize (corn) with different phenotypes of kernel color. She found that the phenotypic effect of one element (Ds) depended on the presence of another element (Ac). However, she had problems mapping these elements onto the chromosomes, because:

A

it is technically difficult to determine the phenotypes.

B

the structure of the dsDNA was not known yet.

C

these elements were jumping on the chromosomes.

D

Ds and Ac cancelled each other out.

Experimental Techniques in Genetics 4

Complete the following sentence. Microsatellites – otherwise known as simple sequence tandem repeats (SSTRs) – are generally di-, tri-, or tetranucleotides. Microsatellites are useful as genetic markers, because:

A

they never contain mistakes.

B

they are highly variable.

C

they are short.

D

they are long.

Experimental Techniques in Genetics 5

DNA microarrays are used to do which of the following?

A

To identify point mutations

B

To analyze DNA fingerprints

C

To amplify genomic DNA

D

To analyze differential gene expression in tissues

Experimental Techniques in Genetics 6

PCR is the most commonly used DNA amplification technique. Which of the following lists the steps of PCR in the correct order?

A

Polymerization, denaturation, melting

B

Melting, base-pairing, elongation

C

Annealing, melting, polymerization

D

Denaturation, annealing, elongation

Experimental Techniques in Genetics 7

Fill in the blanks. ______ are circular extrachromosomal DNA molecules that are present in varying numbers in the cell, and they can be entirely lost without changing species identity. ______ DNA is usually linear, and it determines species identity.

A

Plasmids, Nuclear

B

Mitochondrials, Nuclear

C

Organelles, Chromosomal

D

Plastids, Chromosomal

Experimental Techniques in Genetics 8
question description

The following image outlines conventional breeding, transgenesis, and cisgenesis. The aim of all of these techniques is to generate an organism with desired traits. Which of the following technologies uses recombinant DNA?

A

Cisgenesis only

B

Transgenesis only

C

Transgenesis and cisgenesis

D

Transgenesis and conventional breeding

Experimental Techniques in Genetics 9
question description

The following image outlines the transposition of mobile elements. Which of the following accurately identifies the names of mobile elements in boxes A and B?

A

B shows a transposon, and A shows a retrotransposon.

B

A shows a transposon, and B shows a retrotransposon.

C

A shows a transposon, and B shows a duplicating transposon.

D

B shows a duplicating transposon, and A shows a retrotransposon.

Experimental Techniques in Genetics 10

The organization of the nuclear genome is not randomized. Recent genome studies have revealed general patterns between organisms. Which of the following is NOT a domain that was noticed?

A

Interchromatine

B

Chromosome

C

Nucleolus

D

Plasmid

Experimental Techniques in Genetics 11

Which of the following statement best describes recombinant DNA?

A

Recombinant DNA always combines DNA from at least two sources.

B

Recombinant DNA is the end-result of every cloning process

C

Recombinant DNA always uses a restriction endonuclease and a ligase.

D

Recombinant DNA is always made in the test tube, not in a living cell

Experimental Techniques in Genetics 12

Which of the following statements about class II transposons is true?

A

Class II transposons are segments of DNA that move from one place to another through the cut-and-paste mechanism

B

Class II transposons are characterized by their short lengths and stretch of 15 base pairs that occur at each end of the transposon.

C

Class II transposons are part of a highly unique group that forms large portions of the genomes of eukaryotes.

D

Class II transposons are incorporated through retrotransposition.

Experimental Techniques in Genetics 13

Which of the following was the first transgenic animal that was available to the American public?

A

GloFish

B

Glowing bacteria

C

Glow in the dark cats

D

Glowing mice

Experimental Techniques in Genetics 14

Complete the following sentence. Neurospora works well for genetics studies, because:

A

it spends most of its life cycle in diploid condition.

B

it spends most of its life cycle in the haploid conditio

C

when the zygote undergoes mitosis or meiosis, it spreads

D

its genome is sequenced.

Experimental Techniques in Genetics 15
question description

Identify the analytical technique, which is illustrated on the figure.

A

Yeast two-hybrid system

B

Eukaryotic UAS-Gal4 control

C

Bacterial transcriptional activation

D

Plant gene induction

Prokaryotic Genetics 1

Complete the following sentence. During the process of bacterial conjugation, genetic material is transferred in a unidirectional way from the donor to a recipient. This happens through:

A

viral transduction

B

transformation

C

R-factor

D

F-factor

Prokaryotic Genetics 2

Complete the following sentence. Gene transfer in bacteria is unidirectional, with DNA moving from the donor cell to the recipient cell. Most of the time the donor only gives a part of the DNA, making a:

A

merozygote

B

homologous pair

C

heterozygote

D

disomy

Prokaryotic Genetics 3

Complete the following sentence. Transduction is the transfer of genetic information in bacteria from a donor to a recipient through:

A

a host DNA.

B

a bacteriophage.

C

a nuclease.

D

a virulent strain.

Prokaryotic Genetics 4

Frederick Griffith published his observation in 1928 that the nonpathogenic R strain of Streptococcus pneumonia is converted to S pathogenic strain, if the live R strain is mixed with dead S strain bacteria. Griffith’s experiment describes which of the following?

A

Transfection

B

Induction

C

Transformation

D

Transposition

Prokaryotic Genetics 5
question description

Panels 4 through 6 of the image below illustrate which of the following biological processes?

A

Transfection

B

Transduction

C

Induction

D

Transposition

Prokaryotic Genetics 6
question description

The image below illustrates which of the following biological processes?

A

Conjugation

B

Transformation

C

Transduction

D

Mating

Prokaryotic Genetics 7
question description

The image below shows gene expression regulation in bacteria. Which of the following statements best describes this process?

A

This is the Trp operon, which is repressed by tryptophan (5). Tryptophan inactivates the RNA polymerase (2) by removing it from the DNA and leaving the transcription factor (3) behind

B

This is the Trp operon (4), which is repressed by tryptophan (5). Tryptophan inactivates the RNA polymerase (2) by removing it from the DNA and leaving the transcription factors (3 and 4) behind.

C

This is the Lac operon, which is induced by allolactose (5). Allolactose inactivates the repressor (2) and allows the RNA polymerase (3) to transcribe the genes

D

This is the Lac operon (4), which is induced by lactose (5). Lactose inactivates the repressor (2) and allows the RNA polymerase (3) to transcribe the genes

Prokaryotic Genetics 8

Which of the following is not used to experimentally manipulate gene expression in bacteria?

A

Transfection

B

Transduction

C

Induction

D

Conjugation

Prokaryotic Genetics 9

Which of the following statements best describes bacteria?

A

Introns are removed from the transcript before translation begins.

B

Genes that play a role in the same metabolic pathway are organized into an operator

C

The expression of genes that play a role in the same metabolic pathway is orchestrated by upstream enhancers.

D

Genes that play a role in the same metabolic pathway are organized into an operon

Prokaryotic Genetics 10

Certain species of bacteria always have the ability to utilize lactose as a carbon source. These species can do this with the help of which of the following?

A

The Lac operator

B

Positive feedback

C

Negative feedback

D

The Lac operon

Prokaryotic Genetics 11

Complete the following sentence. A library of yeast with transposons randomly integrated into yeast genes:

A

produces overexpression mutants and is also a tool to analyze the natural expression of that gene if the transposon has a reporter gene.

B

generates jumping genes and mosaic yeast cell; this is similar to the transposon effect in corn that makes color-colorless strikes in seeds.

C

generates transgenic yeast that glows in the dark; thus, it attracts great interest in the bakeries

D

produces gene disruption mutants and is also a tool to analyze the expression of that gene if the transposon has a reporter gene.

Prokaryotic Genetics 12

Complete the following sentence. Most prokaryotes reproduce asexually and are:

A

triploid

B

diploid

C

haploid

D

aneuploid

Prokaryotic Genetics 13
question description

The image below illustrates which of the following biological processes?

A

Series of bacterial conjugation

B

A theory for the origin of eukaryotes

C

A theory for the origin of prokaryotes

D

Plasmid multiplication in fused bacteria

Eukaryotic Genetics 1

Complete the following sentence. Genes within the chloroplast, mitochondria, and nucleus can be transferred back and forth between the organellar and nuclear genomes. Researchers know this, because:

A

they have physically seen the crossover events on electron micrographs

B

they found genes in the chloroplast that were known to be mitochondrial

C

the endosymbiosis hypothesis predicts such gene transfers.

D

proper organellar function requires nuclear gene products.

Eukaryotic Genetics 2

Complete the following sentence. The C-value paradox states that:

A

as the body of an organism becomes more complex, the size of the genome will increase

B

there can be a large difference in the size of the genome even between organisms that are similar in body pattern and size

C

as the body of an organism becomes more complex, the size of the genome will decrease

D

prokaryotic genome is not always smaller than the eukaryotic genome

Eukaryotic Genetics 3

What percentage of the genes that you find in humans do you also find in flies and in mice?

A

Approximately 50% in flies and 99% in mice

B

0% in flies and 75% in mice

C

Approximately 10% in flies and 75% in mice

D

100% in both flies and mice