Genes and DNA
Genes and DNA

Genes and DNA

Lead Author(s): Saylor Academy

Source: Saylor

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In this question pack, explore the basics of Mendelian genetics, rudimentary nucleic acid-based techniques, genetic technology and gene therapies for genetic disorders.

This content is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.

Mendelian Genetics 1

If you cross homozygous red and white snapdragons, then all offspring will have pink flowers.

A

This is a case of incomplete dominance.

B

This is a case of dominant inheritance.

C

This is a case of recessive inheritance.

D

This is a case of Mendelian inheritance.

Mendelian Genetics 2

In a paternity case, the husband claims that based on his blood type, he cannot possibly be the father of his wife’s child. The husband’s blood type is A, the wife’s blood type is AB, and the child has B blood type.

A

The husband is right; he cannot be the father. The father of the child must have AB or B blood type.

B

The husband is right; he cannot be the father. The father of the child must have O blood type.

C

The husband is wrong. He can be the father, if his genotype is AO.

D

The husband is wrong. He can be the father, if his genotype is AA.

Mendelian Genetics 3

Jane and Joe are planning to have a child. They both have brown eyes and Bb genotype. They also have wavy hair and Ww genotype. What is the probability that their child will have blue eyes and straight hair? Genotype ww is responsible for straight hair.

A

1 in 16

B

2 in 16

C

3 in 16

D

9 in 16

Mendelian Genetics 4

Jane Doe has heterozygous brown eyes, and she claims that the father of her blue-eyed son is Joe Brown. Joe Brown has homozygous brown eyes. C an Joe Doe be the father of Jane’s blue-eyed son?

A

Yes, because Jane has Bb genotype and Joe has BB genotype, where B stands for the dominant brown eye and b stands for the recessive blue eye. There is a 50% chance that their children would be blue-eyed and have Bb or BB genotype.

B

Yes, because Jane has Bb genotype and Joe has BB genotype, where B stands for the dominant brown eye and b stands for the recessive blue eye. All of their children should be blue-eyed and have Bb or BB genotype.

C

No, because Jane has BB genotype and Joe has Bb genotype, where B stands for the dominant brown eye and b stands for the recessive blue eye. There is a 50% chance that their children would be brown-eyed and have Bb or BB genotype.

D

No, because Jane has Bb genotype and Joe has BB genotype, where B stands for the dominant brown eye and b stands for the recessive blue eye. All of their children should be brown-eyed and have Bb or BB genotype.

Mendelian Genetics 5

Consider a population where there are only brown-eyed and blue-eyed individuals, and blue eye color is recessive and brown is dominant. No other alleles influence the eye color in this population. Sixteen percent of this population is blue-eyed. What is the frequency of the blue eye color allele in the population?

A

16 %

B

30%

C

40%

D

90%

Nucleic Acid Techniques 1

Differentially expressed transcripts in tissues, cells, and organisms can be identified with the following method.

A

C onventional PC R

B

RT-PC R

C

Real-time RT-PC R

D

Subtractive hybridization

Nucleic Acid Techniques 2

Four cycles result in _______ times amplification during PC R.

A

4

B

8

C

16

D

32

Nucleic Acid Techniques 3

Metabolite-sensing can be achieved not only with proteins, but with RNA as well. RNA molecules that can modify metabolism in the cell upon binding a metabolite are called _______.

A

Ribozymes

B

RNAi

C

MicroRNA

D

Riboswithes

Nucleic Acid Techniques 4

The synthesis of a C. reinhardtii-adapted gfp resulted in the cgfp gene. The cgfp gene is efficiently expressing GFP protein in this alga because _______.

A

In the cgfp gene, the codon usage is C. reinhardtii-conform.

B

The cgfp gene is expressing a different GFP protein sequence.

C

The cgfp gene is expressing a GFP protein with different color.

D

In the cgfp gene, there are fewer introns.

Nucleic Acid Techniques 5

Transcript levels in different tissues, cells, and organisms can be compared quantitatively with the following method.

A

C onventional PC R

B

RT-PC R

C

Real-time RT-PC R

D

Subtractive hybridization.

Nucleic Acid Techniques 6

FISH is an in situ hybridization technique that is using _______ probes to detect homologous nucleic acid sequences in tissues and on chromosomes.

A

Radioactive

B

Fluorescent

C

Silver-enhanced gold

D

Photoenhanced

Genetic Engineering 1

Why are model organisms useful in human genome research?

A

Model organisms have genes similar to human genes.

B

Model organisms are mainly used to highlight the differences between animals and humans.

C

Model organisms can attract animal-loving students to genomics.

D

A focus on the differences contributes to our understanding of genetic inheritance.

Genetic Engineering 2

Recombinant gametes are produced with _______.

A

C rossing over of the sister chromatids during meiosis I.

B

C rossing over of the non-sister chromatids during meiosis I.

C

C rossing over of the sister chromatids during meiosis II.

D

C rossing over of the non-sister chromatids during meiosis II.

Genetic Engineering 3

The expression of an inserted foreign gene can be _______ influenced by the chromosomal site wherein it is inserted.

A

Greatly

B

Hardly

C

Never

D

Temporarily

Genetic Engineering 4

A typical plant cell tolerates well if it is placed into hypotonic solution. When protoplasts are placed into hypotonic solution, they _______.

A

Burst

B

Stay intact

C

Shrink

D

Divide

Genetic Engineering 5

Bacillus thuringiensis is the source of Bt toxin inserted into the Bt plants genome, and Bacillus anthracis is the cause of anthrax. These bacteria differ in their _______ .

A

Genomes

B

Viruses

C

Plasmids

D

Vectors

Genetic Engineering 6

Chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (GUS) and green fluorescent protein (GFP) are often used as _______ in transgenic plants.

A

Reporter genes

B

Selection genes

C

Detection genes

D

Promoters

Genetic Engineering 7

Cre-lox technology is used to generate _______ transgenic organisms.

A

Knock-out

B

Random insertion

C

Mutated

D

Inverted

Genetic Engineering 8

Culturing cells in vitro requires _______ the isolated cells.

A

Providing extracellular matrix for

B

Adding Ti plasmid to the growth medium of

C

Inducing de-differentiation of

D

Inducing viral gene transfer of

Genetic Engineering 9

Human lactoferrin has been introduced into rice to make it able to bind the trace element _______.

A

Zinc

B

Iron

C

Selenium

D

flavin

Genetic Engineering 10

Selective breeding has been historically used to produce offspring with desirable traits. This technique requires careful selection of the parents with _______.

A

Only recessive homozygous

B

Only homozygous traits

C

Only dominant genes

D

A desired combination of recessive and dominant genes

Genetic Engineering 11

Animal pharming is the use of transgenic animals for the production of protein drugs. Frequently used animals for pharming are goats, cows, and sheep, wherein the expression of transgenic protein is typically directed to the _______.

A

Hair shaft

B

Saliva

C

Blood

D

Milk

Genetic Engineering 12

Chimeras are also called _______, since they have cells with different genomes.

A

Genetic mosaics

B

Hybridomas

C

Genetic mixtures

D

Hybrids

Genetic Engineering 13

Dolly, the first cloned mamma, was been generated by _______ technique.

A

Somatic cell nuclear transfer

B

Germ line nuclear transfer

C

In vitro fertilization

D

Recombineering

Genetic Engineering 14

Dolly’s premature death is linked to _______ telomere regions.

A

Her shorter than average

B

Her longer than average

C

The absence of the

D

The branching

Genetic Engineering 15

Generating a cognitive deficit database of mouse mutants is a _______ approach, since it involves behavioral phenotype studies of already established mutant strains.

A

Forward genetic

B

Reverse genetic

C

Transgenic

D

Mutagenic

Genetic Engineering 16

Knock-in, Knock-out, and conditional transgenic lines must all use _______ sequences at both sides of the chromosomal regions to be changed.

A

Substantial homologous

B

Minimal homologous

C

Substantial heterologous

D

Minimal heterologous

Genetic Engineering 17

Many Drosophila melanogaster mutants have been generated with random ___. It is expected that targeted transgenesis is aided by _______ in fruit fly genomics.

A

Site specific insertion; neutralization of position effects

B

Neutralization of position effects; site specific insertion

C

P element insertion; recombinases and integrases

D

Recombinases and integrases; P element insertion.

Genetic Engineering 18

Transgenic mosquitoes expressing an antigen in their saliva _________ Leishmania infection in a murine model.

A

offer protection against

B

enhance

C

attenuate insect bites delivering

D

intensify

Genetic Engineering 19

GloFish is transgenic zebra fish expressing genetic variants of the jellyfish _______.

A

Blue fluorescent protein

B

Green fluorescent protein

C

Red fluorescent protein

D

Yellow fluorescent protein

Genetic Disorders and Therapy 1

_______ can eliminate the risk of children born with diseases due to the combination of genes inherited from their parents.

A

Preimplantation genetic diagnosis

B

Postimplantation genetic diagnosis

C

Prefertilization genetic diagnosis

D

Genetic counseling

Genetic Disorders and Therapy 2

Adenovirus has been used to introduce the functional gene in the case of several single gene locus defects, but several cases of leukemia have been reported when patients developed the disease due to the _______ of the introduced functional gene.

A

Insertion position

B

Activity

C

High copy number

D

Inactivity

Genetic Disorders and Therapy 3

An epigenetic factor is _______.

A

DNA methylation

B

C hromosomal rearrangement

C

Missense mutation

D

C hromosomal inversion

Genetic Disorders and Therapy 4

Gene therapy protocols are already in use to introduce functional genes into the patient’s own _______ and return the _______ into the patient.

A

Stem cells; virus transformed cells

B

Blood cells; virus transformed cells

C

Stem cells; mutated cells

D

Blood cells; mutated cells

Genetic Disorders and Therapy 5

HIV gene therapy, which is currently in clinical trial phase, is disrupting the HIV binding receptors on T cell using a specific _______.

A

Zinc-finger nuclease

B

Protease

C

Antibody

D

Lipase

Genetic Disorders and Therapy 6

In prodrug therapy, an enzyme is delivered to _______ cell, and a prodrug that can be activated by this enzyme is delivered to _______ cell. The drug that is released by the enzyme from the prodrug should be cytotoxic.

A

Every; every

B

Every; a tumor

C

A tumor, a tumor

D

A tumor, every

Genetic Disorders and Therapy 7

Red-green color blindness is an X-linked recessive trait. What is the probability that the son of a man with normal vision and a carrier woman will be red-green color blind?

A

0%

B

25%

C

50%

D

75%

Genetic Disorders and Therapy 8

Sickle cell anemia is a _______ mutation in the globin gene. It is a deadly disease of homozygote individuals, but it offers protection against _______ in heterozygotes.

A

Point; malaria parasite

B

Nonsense; malaria parasite

C

Point; papillomavirus

D

Nonsense; papillomavirus

Genetic Disorders and Therapy 9

The _______ method delivers nucleic acid into the cell using high speed metal particles, for example _______.

A

Gene gun, gold

B

Gene gun, iron

C

Particle gun, gold

D

Particle gun, iron

Genetic Disorders and Therapy 10

The most common polyploidy is trisomy 21, which is _______ syndrome.

A

Turner

B

Klinefelter

C

Down

D

Edwards

Genetic Disorders and Therapy 11

IGF-1 gene therapy and EPO gene therapy could help people with dystrophin deficiency and kidney failure caused by anemia. These gene therapies may also attract athletes and _______.

A

Lead to gene doping

B

Initiate intensive wellness activities

C

C an be easily accepted in sports

D

Might to be legalized soon

Genetic Disorders and Therapy 12

Our genetic makeup is different as well as our response to a variety of drugs. _______ aims to predict a person’s response to drug therapy.

A

Genetic counseling

B

Pharmacogenomics

C

Pharmacokinetics

D

Pharmacology

Genetic Disorders and Therapy 13

The aim of using nanoparticles for drug delivery is to _______.

A

Protect against the body’s immune response

B

Bring another alternative to the market

C

Follow these particles with body scanning

D

Determine how fat particles leaves the body

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