Evolution, Populations, and Phylogeny
Evolution, Populations, and Phylogeny

Evolution, Populations, and Phylogeny

Lead Author(s): Openstax Content

Source: OpenStax

Student Price: FREE

From Openstax: Biology Chapters 18, 19, 20, this question pack explores Darwin's work on evolution, subsequent impacts on population studies, and an intro to phylogeny.

Evolution and the Origin of Species 3
question description

3. Figure 18.23\color{orange}{\text{Figure 18.23}} Which of the following statements is false?

A

Punctuated equilibrium is most likely to occur in a small population that experiences a rapid change in its environment.

B

Punctuated equilibrium is most likely to occur in a large population that lives in a stable climate.

C

Gradual speciation is most likely to occur in species that live in a stable climate.

D

Gradual speciation and punctuated equilibrium both result in the evolution of new species.

Evolution and the Origin of Species 4

4. Which scientific concept did Charles Darwin and Alfred Wallace independently discover?

A

mutation

B

natural selection

C

overbreeding

D

sexual reproduction

Evolution and the Origin of Species 5

5. Which of the following situations will lead to natural selection?

A

The seeds of two plants land near each other and one grows larger than the other.

B

Two types of fish eat the same kind of food, and one is better able to gather food than the other.

C

Male lions compete for the right to mate with females, with only one possible winner.

D

all of the above

Evolution and the Origin of Species 6

6. Which description is an example of a phenotype?

A

A certain duck has a blue beak

B

A mutation occurred to a flower

C

Most cheetahs live solitary lives.

D

both a and c

Evolution and the Origin of Species 7

7. Which situation is most likely an example of convergent evolution?

A

Squid and humans have eyes similar in structure.

B

Worms and snakes both move without legs.

C

Some bats and birds have wings that allow them to fly

D

all of the above

Evolution and the Origin of Species 8

8. Which situation would most likely lead to allopatric speciation?

A

flood causes the formation of a new lake.

B

A storm causes several large trees to fall down.

C

A mutation causes a new trait to develop.

D

An injury causes an organism to seek out a new food source.

Evolution and the Origin of Species 9

9. What is the main difference between dispersal and vicariance?

A

One leads to allopatric speciation, whereas the other leads to sympatric speciation.

B

One involves the movement of the organism, and the other involves a change in the environment.

C

One depends on a genetic mutation occurring, and the other does not.

D

One involves closely related organisms, and the other involves only individuals of the same species.

Evolution and the Origin of Species 10

10. Which variable increases the likelihood of allopatric speciation taking place more quickly?

A

lower rate of mutation

B

longer distance between divided groups

C

increased instances of hybrid formation

D

equivalent numbers of individuals in each population

Evolution and the Origin of Species 11

11. What is the main difference between autopolyploid and allopolyploid?

A

the number of chromosomes

B

the functionality of the chromosomes

C

the source of the extra chromosomes

D

the number of mutations in the extra chromosomes

Evolution and the Origin of Species 12

12. Which reproductive combination produces hybrids?

A

when individuals of the same species in

B

when any two individuals sharing the same habitat reproduce

C

when members of closely related species reproduce

D

reproduce

Evolution and the Origin of Species 13

13. Which condition is the basis for a species to be reproductively isolated from other members?

A

It does not share its habitat with related species.

B

It does not exist out of a single habitat.

C

It does not exchange genetic information with other species.

D

It does not undergo evolutionary changes for a significant period of time.

Evolution and the Origin of Species 14

14. Which situation is not an example of a prezygotic barrier?

A

Two species of turtles breed at different times of the year.

B

Two species of flowers attract different pollinators.

C

Two species of birds display different mating dances.

D

Two species of insects produce infertile offspring.

Evolution and the Origin of Species 15

15. Which term is used to describe the continued divergence of species based on the low fitness of hybrid offspring?

A

reinforcement

B

fusion

C

stability

D

punctuated equilibrium

The Evolution of Populations 5

5. Population genetics is the study of:

A

how selective forces change the allele frequencies in a population over time

B

the genetic basis of population-wide traits

C

whether traits have a genetic basis

D

the degree of inbreeding in a population

The Evolution of Populations 6

6. Which of the following populations is not in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium?

A

a population with 12 homozygous recessive individuals (yy), 8 homozygous dominant individuals (YY), and 4 heterozygous individuals (Yy)

B

a population in which the allele frequencies do not change over time

C

p2+2pq+q2=1p^2 + 2pq + q^2 = 1

D

a population undergoing natural selection

The Evolution of Populations 7

7. One of the original Amish colonies rose from a ship of colonists that came from Europe. The ship’s captain, who had polydactyly, a rare dominant trait, was one of the original colonists. Today, we see a much higher frequency of polydactyly in the Amish population. This is an example of:

A

natural selection

B

genetic drift

C

founder effect

D

b and c

The Evolution of Populations 8

8. When male lions reach sexual maturity, they leave their group in search of a new pride. This can alter the allele frequencies of the population through which of the following mechanisms?

A

natural selection

B

genetic drift

C

gene flow

D

random mating

The Evolution of Populations 9

9. Which of the following evolutionary forces can introduce new genetic variation into a population?

A

natural selection and genetic drift

B

mutation and gene flow

C

natural selection and nonrandom mating

D

mutation and genetic drift

The Evolution of Populations 10

10. What is assortative mating?

A

when individuals mate with those who are similar to themselves

B

when individuals mate with those who are dissimilar to themselves

C

when individuals mate with those who are the most fit in the population

D

when individuals mate with those who are least fit in the population

The Evolution of Populations 11

11. When closely related individuals mate with each other, or inbreed, the offspring are often not as fit as the offspring of two unrelated individuals. Why?

A

Close relatives are genetically incompatible.

B

The DNA of close relatives reacts negatively in the offspring.

C

Inbreeding can bring together rare, deleterious mutations that lead to harmful phenotypes.

D

Inbreeding causes normally silent alleles to be expressed.

The Evolution of Populations 12

12. What is a cline?

A

the slope of a mountain where a population lives

B

the degree to which a mutation helps an individual survive

C

the number of individuals in the population

D

gradual geographic variation across an ecological gradient

The Evolution of Populations 13

13. Which type of selection results in greater genetic variance in a population?

A

stabilizing selection

B

directional selection

C

diversifying selection

D

positive frequency-dependent selection

The Evolution of Populations 14

14. When males and females of a population look or act differently, it is referred to as [math]\text{________}[/math] .

A

sexual dimorphism

B

sexual selection

C

diversifying selection

D

a cline

Phylogenies and the History of Life 5

5 What do scientists in the field of systematics accomplish?

A

discover new fossil sites

B

organize and classify organisms

C

name new species

D

communicate among field biologists

Phylogenies and the History of Life 6

6. Which statement about the taxonomic classification system is correct?

A

There are more domains than kingdoms.

B

Kingdoms are the top category of classification.

C

Classes are divisions of orders.

D

Subspecies are the most specific category of classification.

Phylogenies and the History of Life 7

7. On a phylogenetic tree, which term refers to lineages that diverged from the same place?

A

sister taxa

B

basal taxa

C

rooted taxa

D

dichotomous taxa

Phylogenies and the History of Life 8

8. Which statement about analogies is correct?

A

They occur only as errors.

B

They are synonymous with homologous traits.

C

They are derived by similar environmental constraints.

D

They are a form of mutation.

Phylogenies and the History of Life 9

9. What do scientists use to apply cladistics?

A

homologous traits

B

homoplasies

C

analogous traits

D

monophyletic groups

Phylogenies and the History of Life 10

10. What is true about organisms that are a part of the same clade?

A

They all share the same basic characteristics.

B

They evolved from a shared ancestor.

C

They usually fall into the same classification taxa.

D

They have identical phylogenies.

Phylogenies and the History of Life 11

11. Why do scientists apply the concept of maximum parsimony?

A

to decipher accurate phylogenies

B

to eliminate analogous traits

C

to identify mutations in DNA codes

D

to locate homoplasies

Phylogenies and the History of Life 12

12. The transfer of genes by a mechanism not involving asexual reproduction is called:

A

meiosis

B

web of life

C

horizontal gene transfer

D

gene fusion

Phylogenies and the History of Life 13

13. Particles that transfer genetic material from one species to another, especially in marine prokaryotes:

A

horizontal gene transfer

B

lateral gene transfer

C

genome fusion device

D

gene transfer agents

Phylogenies and the History of Life 14

14. What does the trunk of the classic phylogenetic tree represent?

A

single common ancestor

B

pool of ancestral organisms

C

new species

D

old species

Phylogenies and the History of Life 15

15. Which phylogenetic model proposes that all three domains of life evolved from a pool of primitive prokaryotes?

A

tree of life

B

web of life

C

ring of life

D

network model

CC BY - OpenStax

Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

​The OpenStax name, OpenStax logo, OpenStax book covers, OpenStax CNX name, and OpenStax CNX logo are not subject to the creative commons license and may not be reproduced without the prior and express written consent of Rice University.For questions regarding this license, please contact partners@openstaxcollege.org.