DNA, Genes and Proteins
DNA, Genes and Proteins

DNA, Genes and Proteins

Lead Author(s): Openstax Content

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From Openstax: Biology Chapters 14, 15 and 16, this question pack explores DNA structures and functions, including genes, proteins, and gene expression.

DNA Structures and Functions 4

If DNA of a particular species was analyzed and it was found that it contains 27 percent A, what would be the percentage of C?

A

27 percent

B

30 percent

C

23 percent

D

54 percent

DNA Structures and Functions 5

The experiments by Hershey and Chase helped confirm that DNA was the hereditary material on the basis of the finding that:

A

radioactive phage were found in the pellet

B

radioactive cells were found in the supernatant

C

radioactive sulfur was found inside the cell

D

radioactive phosphorus was found in the cell

DNA Structures and Functions 6

DNA double helix does not have which of the following?

A

antiparallel configuration

B

complementary base pairing

C

major and minor grooves

D

uracil

DNA Structures and Functions 7

In eukaryotes, what is the DNA wrapped around?

A

single-stranded binding proteins

B

sliding clamp

C

polymerase

D

histones

DNA Structures and Functions 8

Meselson and Stahl's experiments proved that DNA replicates by which mode?

A

conservative

B

semi-conservative

C

dispersive

D

none of the above

DNA Structures and Functions 9

If the sequence of the 5'-3' strand is AATGCTAC, then the complementary sequence has the following sequence:

A

3'-AATGCTAC-5'

B

3'-CATCGTAA-5'

C

3'-TTACGATG-5'

D

3'-GTAGCATT-5'

DNA Structures and Functions 10

Which of the following components is not involved during the formation of the replication fork?

A

single-strand binding proteins

B

helicase

C

origin of replication

D

ligase

DNA Structures and Functions 11

Which of the following does the enzyme primase synthesize?

A

DNA primer

B

RNA primer

C

Okazaki fragments

D

phosphodiester linkage

DNA Structures and Functions 12

In which direction does DNA replication take place?

A

5'-3'

B

3'-5'

C

5'

D

3'

DNA Structures and Functions 13

The ends of the linear chromosomes are maintained by

A

helicase

B

primase

C

DNA pol

D

telomerase

DNA Structures and Functions 14

During proofreading, which of the following enzymes reads the DNA?

A

primase

B

topoisomerase

C

DNA pol

D

helicase

Genes and Proteins 3.b

Figure 15.16\color{orange}{\text{Figure 15.16}} Many antibiotics inhibit bacterial protein synthesis. For example, tetracycline blocks the A site on the bacterial ribosome, and chloramphenicol blocks peptidyl transfer. What specific effect would you expect each of these antibiotics to have on protein synthesis?

Chloramphenicol would directly affect

A

tRNA binding to the ribosome

B

ribosome assembly

C

growth of the protein chain

Genes and Proteins 4

The AUC and AUA codons in mRNA both specify isoleucine. What feature of the genetic code explains this?

A

complementarity

B

nonsense codons

C

universality

D

degeneracy

Genes and Proteins 5

How many nucleotides are in 12 mRNA codons?

A

12

B

24

C

36

D

48

Genes and Proteins 6

Which subunit of the E. coli\textit{E. coli} polymerase confers specificity to transcription?

A

α\alpha

B

β\beta

C

β\beta'

D

σ\sigma

Genes and Proteins 7

The -10 and -35 regions of prokaryotic promoters are called consensus sequences because [math]\text{________}[/math].

A

they are identical in all bacterial species

B

they are similar in all bacterial species

C

they exist in all organisms

D

they have the same function in all organisms

Genes and Proteins 8

Which feature of promoters can be found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes?

A

GC box

B

TATA box

C

octamer box

D

-10 and -35 sequences

Genes and Proteins 9

What transcripts will be most affected by low levels of α\alpha-amanitin?

A

18S and 28S rRNAs

B

pre-mRNAs

C

5S rRNAs and tRNAs

D

other small nuclear RNAs

Genes and Proteins 10

Which pre-mRNA processing step is important for initiating translation?

A

poly-A tail

B

RNA editing

C

splicing

D

7-methylguanosine cap

Genes and Proteins 11

What processing step enhances the stability of pre-tRNAs and pre-rRNAs?

A

methylation

B

nucleotide modification

C

cleavage

D

splicing

Genes and Proteins 12

The RNA components of ribosomes are synthesized in the [math]\text{________}[/math].

A

cytoplasm

B

nucleus

C

nucleolus

D

endoplasmic reticulum

Gene Expression 5

Post-translational control refers to:

A

regulation of gene expression after transcription

B

regulation of gene expression after translation

C

control of epigenetic activation

D

period between transcription and translation

Gene Expression 6

If glucose is absent, but so is lactose, the lac\textit{lac} operon will be [math]\text{________}[/math].

A

activated

B

repressed

C

activated, but only partially

D

mutated

Gene Expression 7

Prokaryotic cells lack a nucleus. Therefore, the genes in prokaryotic cells are:

A

all expressed, all of the time

B

transcribed and translated almost simultaneously

C

transcriptionally controlled because translation begins before transcription ends

D

b and c are both true

Gene Expression 8

What are epigenetic modifications?

A

the addition of reversible changes to histone proteins and DNA

B

the removal of nucleosomes from the DNA

C

the addition of more nucleosomes to the DNA

D

mutation of the DNA sequence

Gene Expression 9

Which of the following are true of epigenetic changes?

A

allow DNA to be transcribed

B

move histones to open or close a chromosomal region

C

are temporary

D

all of the above

Gene Expression 10

The binding of [math]\text{________}[/math] is required for transcription to start.

A

a protein

B

DNA polymerase

C

RNA polymerase

D

a transcription factor

Gene Expression 11

What will result from the binding of a transcription factor to an enhancer region?

A

decreased transcription of an adjacent gene

B

increased transcription of a distant gene

C

alteration of the translation of an adjacent gene

D

initiation of the recruitment of RNA polymerase

Gene Expression 12

Which of the following are involved in posttranscriptional control?

A

control of RNA splicing

B

control of RNA shuttling

C

control of RNA stability

D

all of the above

Gene Expression 13

Binding of an RNA binding protein will [math]\text{________}[/math] the stability of the RNA molecule.

A

increase

B

decrease

C

neither increase nor decrease

D

either increase or decrease

Gene Expression 14

Post-translational modifications of proteins can affect which of the following?

A

protein function

B

transcriptional regulation

C

chromatin modification

D

all of the above

Gene Expression 15

Cancer causing genes are called [math]\text{________}[/math].

A

transformation genes

B

tumor suppressor genes

C

oncogenes

D

mutated genes

Gene Expression 16

Targeted therapies are used in patients with a set gene expression pattern. A targeted therapy that prevents the activation of the estrogen receptor in breast cancer would be beneficial to which type of patient?

A

patients who express the EGFR receptor in normal cells

B

patients with a mutation that inactivates the estrogen receptor

C

patients with lots of the estrogen receptor expressed in their tumor

D

patients that have no estrogen receptor expressed in their tumor

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