Biotechnology Fundamentals
Biotechnology Fundamentals

Biotechnology Fundamentals

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A Biotechnology question pack from Saylor Academy.

This content is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.

Biotechnology Fundamentals Q1

If you cross homozygous red and white snapdragons, then all offspring will have pink flowers.

A

This is a case of incomplete dominance.

B

This is a case of dominant inheritance.

C

This is a case of recessive inheritance.

D

This is a case of Mendelian inheritance.

Biotechnology Fundamentals Q2

In a paternity case, the husband claims that based on his blood type, he cannot possibly be the father of his wife’s child. The husband’s blood type is A, the wife’s blood type is AB, and the child has B blood type.

A

The husband is right; he cannot be the father. The father of the child must have AB or B blood type.

B

The husband is right; he cannot be the father. The father of the child must have O blood type.

C

The husband is wrong. He can be the father, if his genotype is AO.

D

The husband is wrong. He can be the father, if his genotype is AA.

Biotechnology Fundamentals Q3

Jane and Joe are planning to have a child. They both have brown eyes and Bb genotype. They also have wavy hair and Ww genotype. What is the probability that their child will have blue eyes and straight hair? Genotype ww is responsible for straight hair.

A

1 in 16

B

2 in 16

C

3 in 16

D

9 in 16

Biotechnology Fundamentals Q4

Jane Doe has heterozygous brown eyes, and she claims that the father of her blue-eyed son is Joe Brown. Joe Brown has homozygous brown eyes. Can Joe Doe be the father of Jane’s blue-eyed son?

A

Yes, because Jane has Bb genotype and Joe has BB genotype, where B stands for the dominant brown eye and b stands for the recessive blue eye. There is a 50% chance that their children would be blue-eyed and have Bb or BB genotype.

B

Yes, because Jane has Bb genotype and Joe has BB genotype, where B stands for the dominant brown eye and b stands for the recessive blue eye. All of their children should be blue-eyed and have Bb or BB genotype.

C

No, because Jane has BB genotype and Joe has Bb genotype, where B stands for the dominant brown eye and b stands for the recessive blue eye. There is a 50% chance that their children would be brown-eyed and have Bb or BB genotype.

D

No, because Jane has Bb genotype and Joe has BB genotype, where B stands for the dominant brown eye and b stands for the recessive blue eye. All of their children should be brown-eyed and have Bb or BB genotype.

Biotechnology Fundamentals Q5

Differentially expressed transcripts in tissues, cells, and organisms can be identified with the following method.

A

Conventional PCR

B

RT-PCR

C

Real-time RT-PCR

D

Subtractive hybridization

Biotechnology Fundamentals Q6

Four cycles result in ______________ times amplification during PCR.

A

4

B

8

C

16

D

32

Biotechnology Fundamentals Q7

Metabolite-sensing can be achieved not only with proteins, but with RNA as well. RNA molecules that can modify metabolism in the cell upon binding a metabolite are called ______________.

A

Ribozymes

B

RNAi

C

MicroRNA

D

Riboswithes

Biotechnology Fundamentals Q8

The synthesis of a C. reinhardtii-adapted gfp resulted in the cgfp gene. The cgfp gene is efficiently expressing GFP protein in this alga because ______________.

A

In the cgfp gene, the codon usage is C. reinhardtii-conform.

B

The cgfp gene is expressing a different GFP protein sequence.

C

The cgfp gene is expressing a GFP protein with different color.

D

In the cgfp gene, there are fewer introns.

Biotechnology Fundamentals Q9

Transcript levels in different tissues, cells, and organisms can be compared quantitatively with the following method.

A

Conventional PCR

B

RT-PCR

C

Real-time RT-PCR

D

Subtractive hybridization.

Biotechnology Fundamentals Q10

FISH is an in situ hybridization technique that is using ______________ probes to detect homologous nucleic acid sequences in tissues and on chromosomes.

A

Radioactive

B

Fluorescent

C

Silver-enhanced gold

D

Photoenhanced

Biotechnology Fundamentals Q11

A genomic DNA sequence that is similar to a functional gene sequence but appears to be non-functional is called ______________.

A

Junk DNA

B

Pseudogene

C

Long repeat

D

Non-coding region

Biotechnology Fundamentals Q12

Chromosomal walking has been used during the early days of genome sequencing. How does this protocol work?

A

Overlapping chromosome fragments are sequenced continuously without leaving any gap behind.

B

Both ends of random chromosome fragments are sequenced and then the fragments are assembled using computer programs.

C

Scaffolds are sequenced and contigs are built from scaffolds.

D

Chromosomes are sequenced between FISH-stained locations and assembled according to these known cytological markers.

Biotechnology Fundamentals Q13

Comparative genomics can be used to identify similarities and differences between the genomes of species. Differences highlight the ______________ of the species, and similarities point toward a(n) ______________.

A

Divergence, common ancestor

B

Distance, common ancestor

C

Divergence, distance

D

Distance, adaptation

Biotechnology Fundamentals Q14

Comparing the human and the fruit fly genome has revealed that the ratio of noncoding to coding sequences is ______________ in the human genome.

A

Higher

B

Lower

C

Unchanged

D

Negligible

Biotechnology Fundamentals Q15

DNA microarray technology cannot be used to identify

A

Genes which are not expressed differentially in tumor and normal cells.

B

Genes which are overexpressed in normal cells.

C

Genes which are overexpressed in tumor cells.

D

Promoter sequences which are particularly active in tumor cells.

Biotechnology Fundamentals Q16

Genome projects generate open access databases and provide programs to analyze sequence data. Which of the following is not a typical task in database mining?

A

RNA—protein interaction prediction.

B

Gene prediction.

C

Open reading frame prediction.

D

Nucleic acid sequence translation to protein sequence.

Biotechnology Fundamentals Q17

Initially, the genome projects sequenced the less condensed chromosomal regions. Recently, new projects have started with the goal to sequence the more condensed chromosomal regions as well. Which chromosomal region has been sequenced first by genome projects?

A

Euchromatin

B

Heterochromatin

C

Telomere

D

Centromere

Biotechnology Fundamentals Q18

Microarray technology employs high throughput protocols for the analysis of complex nucleic acid samples. Which of the following is very unlikely in a DNA microarray protocol?

A

Short known DNA sequences can be synthesized chemically directly on chip.

B

All genes of an organism can be bound in microarrays, and these arrays can be used in differential gene expression studies.

C

Microarrays made from the genome of an organism are typically probed with a whole genomic DNA probe made from the same organism.

D

Fluorescent probes can be used to identify genes on microarrays.

Biotechnology Fundamentals Q19

Microsatellites are also called short tandem repeats (STRs), and they are typically present in non-coding regions. STR-based technology is the most reliable method of DNA biometrics in our time. DNA typing is used to establish parent-child relationship as well. Assume that a couple is expecting a child. The man has 11 and 14 repeats of AAGT at the TPOX locus on his homologous 2nd chromosome pair, and the woman has 6 and 10 repeats of AAGT at the TPOX locus on her homologous 2nd chromosome pair. What TPOX repeat combination cannot be their child's TPOX repeat pair?

A

10 and 6

B

11 and 6

C

14 and 6

D

11 and 10

Biotechnology Fundamentals Q20

RFLP can be used for genotyping including medical diagnosis. This is a complex method using ______________.

A

DNA extraction, restriction enzymes, and Southern blot

B

DNA extraction, PCR, and Southern blot

C

DNA extraction, restriction enzymes, and Western blot

D

DNA extraction, PCR, and Western blot

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