Antigen Presentation, Cell Signalling and Maturation
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An Immunology question pack from Saylor Academy.
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Which of the following is true for mammals lacking a receptor for TNF-α ?
They are resistant to septic shock.
Their immune cells cannot extravasate.
They are especially susceptible to septic shock.
Their immune cells are better able to contain local infections.
Which of the following types of cells would be present first, and in the largest numbers, at the site of a very recent infection?
Cytotoxic T cells
The presence of interferons alpha and beta indicates that the body has been infected with what kind of pathogen?
A bacterial pathogen
A viral pathogen
A fungal pathogen
Any intracellular pathogen
Complete the following sentence. The presence of interferons alpha and beta will most likely result in or cause:
the activation of B cells.
the activation of naïve monocytes.
an increase in the number of B cells.
the activation of natural killer cells.
How can the adaptive immune system be so specific during a first response, when it has never seen the pathogen before?
These cells individually adapt to the infecting pathogen.
These cells have many receptors, each with a specific binding site for common patterns only found on pathogens.
These cells are numerous clones, each with a unique receptor.
Cells from the innate immune system only bring certain types of pathogens to cells of the adaptive immune system.
A protease cleaves an antibody into three fragments. Two of these fragments are identical and are composed of a light polypeptide chain and a heavy polypeptide chain. The third fragment is composed solely of heavy chains. Which of the following statements regarding the identical fragments is true?
They are the area of the antibody involved in effector interactions.
They are also known as Fc fragments.
They make up the C domain of the antibody.
They are the area of the antibody involved in antigen binding.
If your friend is suffering from severe hay fever, then you will expect an increase in his levels of which immunoglobulin?
If you are looking for maternal antibodies in a newborn, what isotype of antibodies should you look for?
An antibody isotype that has a high affinity for antigen-binding sites and can diffuse easily into tissues is best suited for what type of immune-system role?
Mediation of allergic response
Activation of complement
Activation of mast cells
Neutralization of toxins
Which of the following is an example of passive immunization?
Toxoids, toxin sequences with the toxic portion removed, are injected into a patient to promote an antibody response to bacterial toxins.
Maternal antibodies are transported across the placenta into the bloodstream of a fetus.
A horse is immunized with venom and its antibodies are injected into a person bitten by a rattlesnake.
Secretions like tears and saliva always contain antibodies as a protection against potential infection.
A bacterium in the respiratory tract uses adhesins to bind to host cells and later enter those cells. Given what you know about isotype functions AND locations, which of the following isotypes would prevent this bacterial infection?
Which of the following statements about IgM is false?
It is the first antibody to be secreted by B cells.
It has relatively low affinity as a monomer.
It is the only antibody that forms dimers.
It is a good agglutinating antibody.
Which of the following is NOT a means through which immunoglobulin diversity is achieved?
The association of 2 chains (a light and a heavy chain) in forming antigen-binding sites
The presence of many different V-regions on an individual’s genome
The somatic recombination of V, D, and J segments
Complete the following sentence. Point mutations of the V regions of light- and heavy-chain genes occur at a dramatic rate, leading to the expression of variant B-cell receptors on B cells. This occurrence is known as:
Point mutations of the V regions of light- and heavy-chain genes occur at a dramatic rate, leading to the expression of variant B-cell receptors on B cells. Is this occurrence an advantage or a disadvantage for B cells’ function, and why?
It is a disadvantage, because these variant B-cell receptors are unable to recognize antigens.
It is an advantage, because B cells with variant receptors divide more quickly.
It is an advantage, because some variant B-cell receptors bind antigen better and are selected for.
It is a disadvantage, because B cells with variant receptors, regardless of their functionality, can never secrete antibodies.
Which of the following isotype descriptions is incorrect?
IgG antibodies are the best at crossing the placenta.
IgM antibodies are the best at opsonizing extracellular bacteria.
IgA antibodies are mostly in the form of a dimer.
IgE are the most problematic during allergic reactions.
Tumor cells can evade the immune system in which of the following ways?
The tumor cells no longer express mutant proteins.
Antibody bound antigens on the tumor cells are endocytosed.
The tumor cells secrete factors that directly inhibit T cells.
All of these answers
Although MHC I and MHC II signaling pathways are triggered by different pathogens and use different molecules, some of these molecules perform very similar functions. Which of the following statements does NOT describe a similarity in function between molecules in each pathway?
Proteasomes and proteases both degrade antigen proteins into peptides.
Interferons and acids each induce proteasomes and proteases, respectively.
The TAP-1:2 complex and the invariant chain each help ensure that MHC molecules and peptides will be present in the same place so that peptide binding can occur.
The TAP-1:2 complex and HLA-DO both catalyze the binding of MHC molecules with peptides.
Which MHC class type is found on every nucleated cell in the body and why?
MHC I, to present self peptides
MHC II, to present infecting viruses
MHC II, to present both infecting viruses and phagocytosed bacteria
MHC I, to present self peptides and viral peptides
Which MHC class type do Antigen Presenting Cells express on their surface?
Both MHC I and MHC II
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