Antigen Presentation, Cell Signalling and Maturation
Antigen Presentation, Cell Signalling and Maturation

Antigen Presentation, Cell Signalling and Maturation

Lead Author(s): Saylor Academy

Source: Saylor

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An Immunology question pack from Saylor Academy.

This content is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.

Antigen Presentation, Cell Signalling and Maturation Q1

Which of the following is true for mammals lacking a receptor for TNF-α ?

A

They are resistant to septic shock.

B

Their immune cells cannot extravasate.

C

They are especially susceptible to septic shock.

D

Their immune cells are better able to contain local infections.

Antigen Presentation, Cell Signalling and Maturation Q2

Which of the following types of cells would be present first, and in the largest numbers, at the site of a very recent infection?

A

Dendritic cells

B

Neutrophils

C

Cytotoxic T cells

D

Basophils

Antigen Presentation, Cell Signalling and Maturation Q3

The presence of interferons alpha and beta indicates that the body has been infected with what kind of pathogen?

A

A bacterial pathogen

B

A viral pathogen

C

A fungal pathogen

D

Any intracellular pathogen

Antigen Presentation, Cell Signalling and Maturation Q4

Complete the following sentence. The presence of interferons alpha and beta will most likely result in or cause:

A

the activation of B cells.

B

the activation of naïve monocytes.

C

an increase in the number of B cells.

D

the activation of natural killer cells.

Antigen Presentation, Cell Signalling and Maturation Q5

How can the adaptive immune system be so specific during a first response, when it has never seen the pathogen before?

A

These cells individually adapt to the infecting pathogen.

B

These cells have many receptors, each with a specific binding site for common patterns only found on pathogens.

C

These cells are numerous clones, each with a unique receptor.

D

Cells from the innate immune system only bring certain types of pathogens to cells of the adaptive immune system.

Antigen Presentation, Cell Signalling and Maturation Q6

A protease cleaves an antibody into three fragments. Two of these fragments are identical and are composed of a light polypeptide chain and a heavy polypeptide chain. The third fragment is composed solely of heavy chains. Which of the following statements regarding the identical fragments is true?

A

They are the area of the antibody involved in effector interactions.

B

They are also known as Fc fragments.

C

They make up the C domain of the antibody.

D

They are the area of the antibody involved in antigen binding.

Antigen Presentation, Cell Signalling and Maturation Q7

If your friend is suffering from severe hay fever, then you will expect an increase in his levels of which immunoglobulin?

A

IgE

B

IgG

C

IgD

D

IgA

Antigen Presentation, Cell Signalling and Maturation Q8

If you are looking for maternal antibodies in a newborn, what isotype of antibodies should you look for?

A

IgE

B

IgG

C

IgD

D

IgM

Antigen Presentation, Cell Signalling and Maturation Q9

An antibody isotype that has a high affinity for antigen-binding sites and can diffuse easily into tissues is best suited for what type of immune-system role?

A

Mediation of allergic response

B

Activation of complement

C

Activation of mast cells

D

Neutralization of toxins

Antigen Presentation, Cell Signalling and Maturation Q10

Which of the following is an example of passive immunization?

A

Toxoids, toxin sequences with the toxic portion removed, are injected into a patient to promote an antibody response to bacterial toxins.

B

Maternal antibodies are transported across the placenta into the bloodstream of a fetus.

C

A horse is immunized with venom and its antibodies are injected into a person bitten by a rattlesnake.

D

Secretions like tears and saliva always contain antibodies as a protection against potential infection.

Antigen Presentation, Cell Signalling and Maturation Q11

A bacterium in the respiratory tract uses adhesins to bind to host cells and later enter those cells. Given what you know about isotype functions AND locations, which of the following isotypes would prevent this bacterial infection?

A

IgA

B

IgM

C

IgE

D

IgG

Antigen Presentation, Cell Signalling and Maturation Q12

Which of the following statements about IgM is false?

A

It is the first antibody to be secreted by B cells.

B

It has relatively low affinity as a monomer.

C

It is the only antibody that forms dimers.

D

It is a good agglutinating antibody.

Antigen Presentation, Cell Signalling and Maturation Q13

Which of the following is NOT a means through which immunoglobulin diversity is achieved?

A

Affinity maturation

B

The association of 2 chains (a light and a heavy chain) in forming antigen-binding sites

C

The presence of many different V-regions on an individual’s genome

D

The somatic recombination of V, D, and J segments

Antigen Presentation, Cell Signalling and Maturation Q14

Complete the following sentence. Point mutations of the V regions of light- and heavy-chain genes occur at a dramatic rate, leading to the expression of variant B-cell receptors on B cells. This occurrence is known as:

A

combinatorial diversity.

B

somatic hypermutation.

C

somatic recombination.

D

hypervariable rearrangement.

Antigen Presentation, Cell Signalling and Maturation Q15

Point mutations of the V regions of light- and heavy-chain genes occur at a dramatic rate, leading to the expression of variant B-cell receptors on B cells. Is this occurrence an advantage or a disadvantage for B cells’ function, and why?

A

It is a disadvantage, because these variant B-cell receptors are unable to recognize antigens.

B

It is an advantage, because B cells with variant receptors divide more quickly.

C

It is an advantage, because some variant B-cell receptors bind antigen better and are selected for.

D

It is a disadvantage, because B cells with variant receptors, regardless of their functionality, can never secrete antibodies.

Antigen Presentation, Cell Signalling and Maturation Q16

Which of the following isotype descriptions is incorrect?

A

IgG antibodies are the best at crossing the placenta.

B

IgM antibodies are the best at opsonizing extracellular bacteria.

C

IgA antibodies are mostly in the form of a dimer.

D

IgE are the most problematic during allergic reactions.

Antigen Presentation, Cell Signalling and Maturation Q17

Tumor cells can evade the immune system in which of the following ways?

A

The tumor cells no longer express mutant proteins.

B

Antibody bound antigens on the tumor cells are endocytosed.

C

The tumor cells secrete factors that directly inhibit T cells.

D

All of these answers

Antigen Presentation, Cell Signalling and Maturation Q18

Although MHC I and MHC II signaling pathways are triggered by different pathogens and use different molecules, some of these molecules perform very similar functions. Which of the following statements does NOT describe a similarity in function between molecules in each pathway?

A

Proteasomes and proteases both degrade antigen proteins into peptides.

B

Interferons and acids each induce proteasomes and proteases, respectively.

C

The TAP-1:2 complex and the invariant chain each help ensure that MHC molecules and peptides will be present in the same place so that peptide binding can occur.

D

The TAP-1:2 complex and HLA-DO both catalyze the binding of MHC molecules with peptides.

Antigen Presentation, Cell Signalling and Maturation Q19

Which MHC class type is found on every nucleated cell in the body and why?

A

MHC I, to present self peptides

B

MHC II, to present infecting viruses

C

MHC II, to present both infecting viruses and phagocytosed bacteria

D

MHC I, to present self peptides and viral peptides

Antigen Presentation, Cell Signalling and Maturation Q20

Which MHC class type do Antigen Presenting Cells express on their surface?

A

MHC I

B

MHC II

C

Neither

D

Both MHC I and MHC II

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