Astronomy Essentials
Astronomy Essentials

Astronomy Essentials

Lead Author(s): Michele Montgomery, Ph.D

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General Education Astronomy - Solar System, Stars, and Galaxies.

Table of Contents


Preface


Part 1: Background and Basics

        Chapter 1: An Introduction to Astronomy

                1.1 Your Location in the Universe

                1.2 Sizes in the Universe

                1.3 Lookback Times and Lookback Distances 

                1.4 How Astronomy Relates to You & the Scientific Method   


        Chapter 2: Viewing the Sky

                2.1 Constellations, Asterisms, and the Zodiac

                2.2 Your Local Sky

                2.3 The Celestial Sphere and Earth’s Seasons

                2.4 Daily, Monthly, and Yearly Motions in Your Local Sky

                2.5 Lunar and Solar Eclipses


        Chapter 3: History of Astronomy 

                3.1 Hypothesis, Principle, Theory, and Law

                3.2 Historical People in Astronomy and Their Contribution 


        Chapter 4: Matter,  Light, and Telescopes

                4.1 Matter and Light

                4.2 Electromagnetic Spectrum of Light

                4.3 Light and Spectra

                4.4 Telescopes, Instruments, and Observations


Part 2: Solar and Exosolar Systems

        Chapter 5: Solar and Exosolar Small Bodies

                5.1 Major Parts of the Solar System

                5.2 Small Bodies in the Solar System

                5.3 Age of the Solar System

                5.4 Exosolar Small Bodies


        Chapter 6: Terrestrial and Exoterrestrials

                6.1 Earth

                6.2 Mercury

                6.3 Venus

                6.4 Mars

                6.5 Exoterrestrial Planets       

                6.6 Compare/Contrast Terrestrial/Exoterrestrial Properties


        Chapter 7: Jovians and Exo-Jovians

                7.1 Jupiter

                7.2 Saturn

                7.3 Uranus

                7.4 Neptune

                7.5 Comparing Jovians

                7.6 ExoJovians

                7.7 Finding Exoplanets

                7.8 Brown Dwarf and Exoplanet Populations 


        Chapter 8: Sun, Space Weather, and Formation

                8.1 Bulk Properties of the Sun

                8.2 Sun's Surface to Interior

                8.3 Sun's Surface to Atmosphere 

                8.4 Active Sun

                8.5 Space Weather and Effects Felt at Earth

                8.6 Solar and Multi-Exoplanet Star Systems

                8.7 Solar and Star System Formation


Part 3: Stars 

     Chapter 9: Stars on the H-R Diagram

                9.1 Stellar Properties

                9.2 Hertsprung-Russell (H-R) Diagram

                9.3 Systems in the Solar Neighborhood

                9.4 Evolution to the Main Sequence


     Chapter 10: Evolution to the Main Sequence

                10.1 Mass Groups on Main Sequence and Nuclear Fusion

                10.2 Later Stages of Evolution for V VLMs

                10.3 Later Stages of Evolution for VLMs

                10.4 Later Stages of Evolution for LMs

                10.5 Later Stages of Evolution for IMs

                10.6 Later Stages of Evolution for HMs

                10.7 Later Stages of Evolution for VHMs

                10.8 Later Stages of Evolution for V VHMs

                10.9 Trends in Stellar Evolution


     Chapter 11: Evolution off the Main Sequence

                11.1 Common Properties of End Products

                11.2 Brown Dwarfs

                11.3 White Dwarfs

                11.4 Neutron Stars and Pulsars

                11.5 Black Holes

                11.6 Gamma-ray Bursts

     

   Chapter 12: Compact Stars, isolated and in binaries

                12.1 Evolution of Binary Brown Dwarfs (V VLMs)

                12.2 Evolution of Binary Red Dwarfs (VLMs)

                12.3 Later Stages of Evolution for Sun-like Stars (LMs)

                12.4 Later Stages of Evolution for IMs

                12.5 Later Stages of Evolution for HMs

                12.6 Later Stages of Evolution for VHMs

                12.7 Later Stages of Evolution for V VHMs


Part 4: Galaxies 

        Chapter 13 Milky Way Galaxy

                13.1 Shape, Size, Parts, Types, Motions, and Mass

                13.2 Density Waves

                13.3 Formation 

                13.4 Zooming in on Galactic Center

                13.5 Supermassive Black Hole at Sgr A*


        Chapter 14 Galaxies Beyond the Milky Way

                14.1 Major Types and Sizes of Nearby Galaxies

                14.2 Hubble Galaxy Classifications, Fork, and Sequence

                14.3 Distances to Galaxies and the Cosmic Distance Ladder

                14.4 Galaxy Appearances Near and Far

                14.5 Galaxy Evolution from High-to-Low Redshift