Canadian Professional Engineering and Geoscience, 6th Edition
Canadian Professional Engineering and Geoscience, 6th Edition

Canadian Professional Engineering and Geoscience, 6th Edition

Lead Author(s): Patricia Shaw, John McPhee, Gordon C. Andrews

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Nelson - Canadian Professional Engineering and Geoscience: Practice and Ethics, 6e, is a unique and comprehensive text for today’s Canadian students and practising professionals. Structured in five parts, the text is written in an approachable and engaging style that effectively covers practice and ethics topics while offering advice for readers to become effective professionals. The authors guide readers through professional licensing, practice, ethics, and environmental practice and ethics using history, case studies, examples, and images to bring the issues to life. The text devotes an entire chapter to preparing readers for the Professional Practice Examination (PPE), including practice questions to bolster success. Canadian Professional Engineering and Geoscience is up to date with Engineers Canada’s practice and ethics syllabus and is the recommended study guide for this section of the PPE. The coverage in this sixth edition includes all provinces and territories of Canada and contains updated, new, and revised content and cases including the fascinating new case history: “Accidental Overdose: The Therac-25 Radiation Therapy Accidents.” This edition has expanded its Employment, Management, and Consulting sections with new and relevant Canadian cases to keep readers engaged and connected to the content. Canadian Professional Engineering and Geoscience: Practice and Ethics is a vital professional resource for study and reference.

Contents

In Memoriam
About the Cover and Frontispiece
About the Authors
Preface

Part One Professional Licensing and Regulation

Chapter 1 Introduction to the Professions
1.1 An Inspiring Legacy
1.2 Overview of Engineering and Geoscience
1.3 The Technical Team
1.4 Introduction to Case Histories
Case History 1.1
Discussion Topics and Assignments
Notes

Chapter 2 Regulation of Engineering and Geoscience
2.1 Evolution of Engineering and Geoscience Licensing
2.2 Regulatory Acts
2.3 Definition of Engineering
2.4 Definition of Geoscience
2.5 Licensing Associations
2.6 Professional Licensing: General Rules
2.7 Licensing of Engineers
2.8 Licensing of Geoscientists
2.9 Professional Practice Examination
2.10 Experience Requirements
2.11 Mobility Agreements
2.12 Licensing of Corporations
2.13 Consulting Engineers
2.14 The Professional Seal
2.15 Discipline and the Code of Ethics
2.16 Engineers Canada
2.17 Geoscientists Canada
2.18 Overview of Professional Relationships
Case History 2.1
Discussion Topics and Assignments
Notes

Chapter 3 Disciplinary Powers and Procedures
3.1
Introduction
3.2 Enforcement: Unlicensed Practitioners
3.3 Discipline: Licensed Practitioners
3.4 An Overview of the Disciplinary Process
Case History 3.1
3.5 Fee Mediation and Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR)
3.6 A Final Perspective on Discipline
Case History 3.2
Case History 3.3
Case History 3.4
Case History 3.5
Case History 3.6
Discussion Topics and Assignments
Notes

Part Two Professional Practice

Chapter 4 Basic Concepts of Professional Practice
4.1 Entering the Professional Workforce
4.2 Applying for a Licence
4.3 Documenting Your Experience
4.4 Levels of Professional Responsibility
4.5 Salary Expectations for Professionals
4.6 Your Professional Duties: An Overview
4.7 Professional Working Conditions
4.8 Using Your Professional Seal
4.9 Promotion to Specialist or Manager
Discussion Topics and Assignments
Notes

Chapter 5 Consulting, Private Practice, and Business
5.1 The Lure of Consulting
5.2 Consulting Activities
5.3 Additional Licensing and Insurance Requirements
5.4 Selecting a Business Format
5.5 Selecting and Hiring Consultants
5.6 Assistance for Consultants
5.7 Compensation for Consultants
5.8 Starting a Private Practice or Business
5.9 Evaluating Your Potential as a Consultant
5.10 Getting Your Enterprise Started
Discussion Topics and Assignments
Notes

Chapter 6 Hazards, Liability, Standards, and Safety
6.1 Sources of Professional Liability
6.2 Professional Liability and Tort Law
6.3 Products Liability
6.4 Designing for Safety
6.5 Risk Reduction
Case History 6.1
6.6 The Standards Council of Canada (SCC)
6.7 Creating New Standards
6.8 ISO 9000, ISO 14000, and ISO 26000 Standards
6.9 Government Codes and Standards
6.10 Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) Laws
6.11 Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System (WHMIS)
Case History 6.2
Discussion Topics and Assignments
Notes

Chapter 7 Computers, Software, and Intellectual Property
7.1
The Role of Computers in Engineering and Geoscience
Case History 7.1
7.2 Liability for Software Errors
7.3 Software Development
Case History 7.2
7.4 Using Commercial Software
7.5 Computer Security
7.6 Preventing Software Piracy
7.7 Copyright, Patents, Designs, and Trademarks
Case History 7.3
Case History 7.4
Discussion Topics and Assignments
Notes

Chapter 8 Diversity in the Professional Workplace
8.1
Achieving Diversity and Equity
8.2 Discrimination and the Charter of Rights
8.3 Enrolment Patterns by Gender in University Programs
8.4 What Is Sexual Harassment?
8.5 The Benefits of Diversity
8.6 Eliminating Discrimination
8.7 Fair Practices in the Workplace
8.8 Integrating Immigrants into the Professions
8.9 Concluding Comments
Case Study 8.1
Case Study 8.2
Case Study 8.3
Discussion Topics and Assignments
Notes

Part Three Professional Ethics

Chapter 9 Principles of Ethics and Justice
9.1
Ethics and Problem Solving
9.2 Four Important Ethical Theories
9.3 Agreement and Contradiction in Ethical Theories
9.4 Example of an Ethical Dilemma
9.5 Principles of Justice
9.6 Natural Justice and Dispute Resolution
9.7 Codes of Ethics as Guides to Conduct
9.8 A Strategy for Solving Complex Ethical Problems
Case Study 9.1
Discussion Topics and Assignments
Notes

Chapter 10 Ethics Concepts and Cases: Employment
10.1 Common Ethical Issues and Dilemmas
10.2 Conflicts in Technical and Management Authority
10.3 Professional Employee Guidelines
10.4 Professional Employees and Labour Unions
10.5 Unethical Managers and Whistle-Blowing
10.6 Conflict of Interest—An Overview
10.7 Introduction to Case Studies
Case Study 10.1
Case Study 10.2
Case Study 10.3
Case Study 10.4
Case Study 10.5
Case Study 10.6
Case Study 10.7
Case History 10.1
Discussion Topics and Assignments
Notes

Chapter 11 Ethics Concepts and Cases: Management
11.1
Creating a Professional Workplace
11.2 Hiring and Dismissal
11.3 Reviewing Work and Evaluating Competence
11.4 Conflict of Interest in Management
11.5 Discrimination in Professional Employment
Case Study 11.1
Case Study 11.2
Case Study 11.3
Case Study 11.4
Case Study 11.5
Case Study 11.6
Case History 11.1
Discussion Topics and Assignments
Notes

Chapter 12 Ethics Concepts and Cases: Consulting
12.1
The Client–Consultant Relationship
12.2 Advertising for New Projects
12.3 Competitive Bidding for New Projects
12.4 Professional Competence
12.5 Confidentiality
12.6 Conflict of Interest
12.7 Reviewing the Work of Another Professional
12.8 Ownership of Design Calculations
12.9 Negligence and Civil Liability
12.10 Codes of Ethics for Consultants
12.11 Ethics in Foreign Consulting
Case Study 12.1
Case Study 12.2
Case Study 12.3
Case Study 12.4
Case Study 12.5
Case Study 12.6
Case History 12.1
Discussion Topics and Assignments
Notes

Part Four Environmental Practice and Ethics

Chapter 13 Environmental Ethics
13.1
The Duty to Society
13.2 The Duty to the Employer (and Its Limits)
13.3 Canadian Environmental Law
13.4 Environmental Guidelines for Engineers and Geoscientists
13.5 Environmental Guidelines for Corporations
13.6 The Duty to Report—Whistle-Blowing
13.7 The Ethical Dilemma of Whistle-Blowing
13.8 A Dissenting View of the Duty to Society
Case History 13.1
Discussion Topics and Assignments
Notes

Chapter 14 Environmental Threats and Disasters
14.1
Canada’s Environmental Health
14.2 Greenhouse Gas Emissions
14.3 Energy Conservation and Nuclear Power
14.4 Waste Disposal
14.5 Air Pollution
14.6 Acid Rain
14.7 Water Pollution
14.8 Exponential Population Growth
14.9 The Tragedy of the Commons
Case History 14.1
Case History 14.2
Case History 14.3
Notes

Chapter 15 Environmental Sustainability
15.1
A Definition of Sustainability
15.2 A Brief History of Sustainable Thinking
15.3 Climate Change
15.4 Oil and Gas Depletion
15.5 The Ethics of Climate Change and Peak Oil
15.6 The Need for Societal Change
15.7 Sustainability for Engineers and Geoscientists
15.8 The Oil Sands and Climate Change
Discussion Topics and Assignments
Notes

Part Five Obtaining and Maintaining Your Professional Status

Chapter 16 Writing the Professional Practice Exam
16.1
The Steps in the Licensing Process
16.2 PPE Format: Overview and Summary
16.3 PPE Syllabus: Engineers Canada
16.4 National Professional Practice Examination (NPPE)
16.5 Advice for Writing the PPE
16.6 Examination Questions
Notes

Chapter 17 Maintaining Your Professional Competence
17.1
Your Career Path: Success or Obsolescence?
17.2 Competence Program Requirements
17.3 Professional Development Activities
17.4 Reporting and Auditing
17.5 Taking Charge of Your Future
17.6 Postgraduate Studies
17.7 Closing Comments
Discussion Topics and Assignments
Notes

Chapter 18 Benefiting from Technical Societies
18.1
The Importance of Technical Societies
18.2 The Evolution of Technical Societies
18.3 Choosing a Technical Society
18.4 Canadian Student Societies
18.5 Charitable and Honorary Societies
18.6 The Iron Ring: A Ritual for Engineers
18.7 The Earth Science Ring: A Ritual for Geoscientists
Discussion Topics and Assignments
Notes

Appendix
Professional Licensing: Engineering and Geoscience