Critical Thinking for College Students
Critical Thinking for College Students

Critical Thinking for College Students

Lead Author(s): Denise Albert

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Critical Thinking Skills.

Contents

Preface:  What is knowledge?      

  •  Belief
  • Truth
  • Justification
  • Activity
  • Chapter exercises
  • Chapter quiz

Chapter 1:  Why Study Critical Thinking?      

  • What is critical thinking?
  • When will it be useful

Chapter 2:  What is an Argument?      

  • Definition
  • Premise
  • Conclusion
  • Standardized form
  • STRUCTURE OF AN ARGUMENT
    • How to find an argument
    • Premise indicators
    • Conclusion indicators
  • NOT AN ARGUMENT
    • Series of facts
    • Emotions
    • Series of Questions
    • Descriptions
    • Explanations
  • Activity
  • Chapter exercises
  • Chapter quiz

Chapter 3:  Logical Connection      

  • Activity
  • Chapter exercises
  • Chapter quiz

Chapter 4:  Acceptable Premises    

  • Supported by a good sub-argument
  • A priori true
  • Common knowledge
  • Supported by a relevant figure of authority
  • Activity
  • UNACCEPTABLE  PREMISE
    • Counter example
    • A priori false
    • Contradicting premises
    • Ambiguity/opinion
    • Premise needs justification (controversial)
    • Needs relevant figure of authority
  • Activity
  • Chapter exercises
  • Chapter quiz

Chapter 5:  Fallacies      

  • False dilemma
  • Ignorance
  • Equivocation
  • Begging the question/Circularity
  • Appeal to pity
  • Popularity
  • Ad hominem
  • Hasty generalization
  • Red herring
  • Slippery slope
  • Activity
  • Chapter exercises
  • Chapter quiz

Chapter 6:  Using Numbers to Deceive     

  • Unreliable statistic
  • Confusing average
  • Proving one thing, concluding another
  • Deceiving by omitting information
  • Year of sample (or source)
  • Size of sample
  • Biased sample
  • Research methods
  • Activity
  • Chapter exercises
  • Chapter quiz

Chapter 7:  Inductive vs. Deductive Logic

  • Activity
  • Chapter exercises
  • Chapter quiz

Chapter 8:  Deductive Logic      

  • Validity
  • Soundness
  • Activity
  • Chapter exercises
  • Chapter quiz

Chapter 9:  Analyzing a Thesis Essay      

  • Read essay
  • Find conclusion
  • Find the premises
  • Write the argument in standardized form
  • Determine whether it has a good logical connection
  • Identify assumptions
  • Establish truth of each premise
  • Differentiate between fact an opinion
  • Determine the quality of the argument
  • Give your overall comments on the argument
  • Activity
  • Chapter exercises (series of essays to analyse and practice)
    • The contemporary relevance of Greek Mythology
    • Pablo Picasso's Value
    • The hijab: confusing religion and culture
    • The Truth about cell phones
    • Vaccination is the disease, not the cure

Chapter 10:  Writing a Thesis Essay      

  • Finding a topic
  • Doing research
  • Creating a thesis statement
  • Writing an essay outline
  • Writing an introduction
  • Writing a paragraph
  • Writing a conclusion
  • Visualizing an essay 
  • Essay Checklist

Chapter 11:  More Fallacies      

  • Fallacy of composition
  • Fallacy of Division
  • Straw man fallacy
  • Faulty analogy
  • Ad Hoc
  • Cherry picking
  • Activity
  • Chapter exercises
  • Chapter quiz

Appendix 1:  More Essays to Analyse    

  • In Vitro Fertilization
  • Overpopulation Crisis
  • Server Owners
  • Third Gender