Structuralisms and Post-Structuralisms
Structuralisms and Post-Structuralisms

Structuralisms and Post-Structuralisms

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A question pack primarily focused on context and culture from a literary perspective but is also applicable from a philosophical perspective.

This content is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.

Structuralisms and Post-Structuralisms Q1

According to Jacques Lacan, the mirror stage is the point at which a child:

A

refuses maternal bonds.

B

is able to separate the "I" from the "Other."

C

looks into a mirror for the first time.

D

first engages with speech.

E

All of the above answers are correct.

Structuralisms and Post-Structuralisms Q2

In his essay "The Death of the Author," Roland Barthes argues what about literature?

A

Biographical information about the author must be considered when evaluating literature.

B

A text and its author text are unrelated.

C

It is possible to distill meaning from a work based on the author's politics.

D

Authorial intent must be considered when evaluating literature.

E

Literature is inextricably connected to its creator.

Structuralisms and Post-Structuralisms Q3

In his essay "What Is an Author?" what position(s) on authorship does Michel Foucault take?

A

The idea of the author came into being at a certain point in history.

B

The names of authors serve a classificatory function.

C

The author is not a source of infinite meaning.

D

The author may not always exist.

E

All of the above answers are correct.

Structuralisms and Post-Structuralisms Q4

In Of Grammatology, Jacques Derrida argues what about literature?

A

No fixed, stable meaning is possible.

B

Language must be studied in conjunction with history in order to create meaning.

C

There is no potential for multiple and differing meanings in a work of literature.

D

Literature is timeless, and thus meaning does not change.

E

All of the above answers are correct.

Structuralisms and Post-Structuralisms Q5

Jacques Derrida's concept of différance challenges us to think about language as a system that:

A

mirrors our physical evolution as human beings.

B

prevents us from communicating through writing or speech.

C

involves a constant process of deferred meaning.

D

evolved exclusively as a function of our individual psyche.

E

All of the above answers are correct.

Structuralisms and Post-Structuralisms Q6

To what idea does the ancient Greek term aporia refer in terms of deconstruction theory?

A

The ability of a text to contain truth

B

The "undecidability" and essentially unstable nature of a text

C

The idea that a text has a specific meaning that can be understood through a process of deconstruction

D

Jacques Derrida's style of writing

E

All of the above answers are correct.

Structuralisms and Post-Structuralisms Q7

Ultimately, the literary theory of deconstruction argues that:

A

the meaning of a text always relies on context.

B

texts are always heterogeneous.

C

the instability of a text is actually evident in the text itself.

D

any system for the production of meaning is inevitably bound by context, yet also limitless.

E

All of the above answers are correct.

Structuralisms and Post-Structuralisms Q8

What did Sigmund Freud believe about the unconscious?

A

It contains secret instincts and desires that are repressed.

B

It has little impact on human behavior.

C

It is the only significant aspect of the human psyche.

D

It can never be accessed.

E

All of the above answers are correct.

Structuralisms and Post-Structuralisms Q9

What fundamental idea does psychoanalytic criticism hold about literary texts?

A

Literary texts should not be read as a projection of the author's psyche.

B

Literary texts solely reflect an author's intentions.

C

Literary texts are unlike dreams because they have a system of order and produce meaning.

D

Literary texts reveal secret elements of an author's unconscious.

E

All of the above answers are correct.

Structuralisms and Post-Structuralisms Q10

What is the philosophical theory known as pragmatism?

A

A maxim of logic developed by Charles Sanders Peirce

B

A theory of practical actions developed by William James

C

An idea used to guide conduct towards clear objectives

D

A concept derived from the ancient Greek word pragma, meaning action

E

All of the above answers are correct.

Structuralisms and Post-Structuralisms Q11

Which literary theorist argues that "there is nothing outside the text"?

A

T.S. Eliot

B

Jacques Lacan

C

Jacques Derrida

D

Stanley Fish

E

Edward Said

Structuralisms and Post-Structuralisms Q12

Which of the following human behaviors is important to a Freudian psychoanalytic study of William Shakespeare's Hamlet?

A

Neurotic behavior

B

Changes in emotional states

C

Obsessions

D

Slips of the tongue

E

All of the above answers are correct.

Structuralisms and Post-Structuralisms Q13

Which of the following is a rule of semiotics?

A

All linguistic concepts evolve solely out of the responses of people within a specific historical era.

B

All linguistic and social phenomena are texts, and the object of studying these texts is to reveal the underlying codes that make them meaningful.

C

All linguistics is in some way related to class struggle.

D

All linguistics is related to history, and therefore the meaning of linguistics relies exclusively on historical context.

E

All of the above answers are correct.

Structuralisms and Post-Structuralisms Q14

Which text argues that, as infants, human beings begin to define their identities against the identities of others?

A

Judith Butler's Gender Trouble

B

W.E.B. Du Bois's The Souls of Black Folk

C

Roland Barthes's "The Death of the Author"

D

Jacques Derrida's Of Grammatology

E

Jacques Lacan's "The Mirror Stage … "

Structuralisms and Post-Structuralisms Q15

With what literary critic is the term the author function most closely associated?

A

Claude Lévi-Strauss

B

Jacques Derrida

C

Jacques Lacan

D

Michel Foucault

E

Carl Jung

Structuralisms and Post-Structuralisms Q16

Which of the following best defines the work of a deconstructionist critic?

A

Calling into question the possibility of the coherence of discourse

B

Suggesting that the study of literature is based on the breakdown of language into signs

C

Arguing that language, and therefore literary texts, relies on the difference between terms and therefore constantly defers meaning.

D

Calling into question the capacity of language to communicate

E

All of the above answers are correct.

Structuralisms and Post-Structuralisms Q17

How are Julia Kristeva's psychoanalytic theories distinct from traditional Freudian concepts?

A

Kristeva rejects the idea that neuroses provide insight into the unconscious.

B

Kristeva suggests that women are not subject to traditional fetishes.

C

Kristeva offers a more central place for women's issues within psychological development.

D

Kristeva fundamentally disagrees with the idea of the mirror stage.

E

All of the above answers are correct.

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