Rationality, Justice and the State
Rationality, Justice and the State

Rationality, Justice and the State

Lead Author(s): Saylor Academy

Source: Saylor

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Question pack including Hobbes, Marx, Plato and more.

This content is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.

Confucius Q1

According to Confucius, which of the following actions on the part of the ruler will be met with resentment?

A

Ruling in accordance with ritual

B

Ruling in accordance with de

C

Ruling by force

D

Ruling by compassion

E

Respecting the opinions of the peasants

Hobbes Q2

According to Hobbes, what would life consist of without the existence of a state?

A

A utopian society with no hunger or crime

B

A war of all against all

C

A continual struggle to compete with one’s fellow human beings

D

Both A and B

E

Both B and C

Hobbes Q3

According to Hobbes, why is the establishment of a state a rational act?

A

It is rational to entrust one’s fate to one’s superiors.

B

It is rational to submit to a common authority in order to escape the state of nature.

C

It is rational to create a society of culture.

D

It is rational to share our resources equally with one another.

E

It is rational to want to acquire power.

Marx Q4

According to Marx, why is it that the industrial mode of production is intolerable for workers?

A

It impoverishes workers.

B

It is physically strenuous for workers.

C

It alienates workers from their nature as human beings.

D

It is emotionally distressing to workers.

E

It is not intellectually stimulating for workers.

Marx Q5

According to Marx, why is productive activity important for human beings?

A

It helps them earn a living.

B

It is a part of their nature.

C

It keeps them from rising up against their oppressors.

D

It divides society into an orderly hierarchy.

E

It helps to quell their violent impulses.

Plato Q6

Complete the following statement.

Plato argues that philosopher kings will act in the best interests of everyone, because:

A

only they know what justice and goodness are.

B

only they are respected by everyone in the city.

C

philosophers love their fellow men more than anything else.

D

philosophers derive their power from popular approval.

E

philosophers are inherently just and good.

Hobbes’s Q7

Complete the following statements.

Hobbes’s social contract is an agreement between:

A

the rulers and the ruled.

B

all members of a society.

C

parents and their children.

D

human beings and God.

E

citizens and their representatives.

Marx Q8

For Marx, alienation means which of the following?

A

Workers are dissociated from one another.

B

Workers are dissociated from the products of their labor.

C

Workers are dissociated from wages.

D

All of the above

E

A and B only

Hobbes Q9

Hobbes described the sovereign as which of the following?

A

A philosopher king

B

The agent and embodiment of the people

C

The solution to the sources of conflict in society

D

Both A and B

E

Both B and C

Machiavelli Q10

How did Machiavelli change the way virtuous leadership was perceived?

A

He introduced a conception of virtue that differed greatly from the traditional Christian version.

B

He provided an example of virtuous leadership by his own actions.

C

He misinterpreted Aristotle’s theory of virtue.

D

He introduced Aristotle’s theory of virtue to renaissance Italy.

E

He ignored all previous conceptions of virtue.

Machiavelli Q11

In contrast to traditional Christian political views, Machiavelli taught which of the following?

A

That leaders should act only on the basis of the people’s wishes

B

That leaders should act as moral exemplars for their people

C

That leaders should act with cunning and, if need be, with cruelty

D

Both A and B

E

Both B and C

Marx’s Q12

Which of the following is true of the time of Marx’s writing?

A

Most individuals owned their own farms or workshops.

B

Most individuals had a fair amount of financial security.

C

The economy was being transformed by technological advances.

D

No great divisions between social classes existed.

E

The dominant form of government was communism.

Philosophers Q13

Which of the following philosophers argued that virtuous leadership consisted in getting and keeping political power?

A

Plato

B

Machiavelli

C

Hobbes

D

Marx

E

Confucius

Philosophers Q14

Which of the following philosophers emphasizes hierarchy as an important component of a well-run state?

A

Marx

B

Hobbes

C

Confucius

D

Both A and B

E

Both B and C

Philosophers Q15

Which of the following philosophers speak of the Dao as the path to be followed in life?

A

Lao Tzu

B

Zhuangzi

C

Confucius

D

All of the above

E

A and C only

Philosophers Q16

Which of the following philosophers would argue that brutal punishment is a good tactic for keeping order in the state?

A

Hobbes

B

Plato

C

Machiavelli

D

Aristotle

E

Confucius

Confucius Q17

Which of the following principles would Confucius most likely agree with?

A

Force is the only way to maintain order.

B

Deceiving one’s subject is sometimes necessary to maintain one’s image.

C

Without leadership human beings would simply compete violently with one another.

D

Sometimes the best way to rule is through inaction.

E

Only through productive activity can human beings fulfill their nature.

Philosopher Q18

Which philosopher argues that human nature is competitive and self-interested, but also rational?

A

Plato

B

Hobbes

C

Machiavelli

D

Marx

E

Confucius

Pascal Q19

According to Pascal, what do we stand to lose if we wager that God exists and we wager incorrectly?

A

Infinite error

B

Infinite happiness

C

Reason

D

Both A and B

E

Both B and C

Pascal Q20

According to Pascal, what is the most important reason to wager on whether or not God exists?

A

Faith alone cannot prove to us that God exists.

B

Gambling is inherently exciting.

C

It is better to wager about God than about money.

D

Wagering helps us sharpen our reasoning skills.

E

We have no choice. We have to wager.

Plato Q21

Complete the following statement.

According to Plato, the soul must be immortal because death is the opposite of life, and:

A

the soul is by its nature alive.

B

the soul is by its nature dead.

C

the soul is what unites opposites.

D

everything passes away except the soul.

E

everything comes to be from its opposite.

Plato Q22

Complete the following statement.

Plato argues that the soul must be immortal, because:

A

the soul is like the knowledge it apprehends, which is eternal.

B

the soul is like the harmony produced by a lyre.

C

the soul is a vapor that escapes the body as it dies.

D

the soul is associated with thinking, and therefore it exists.

E

the soul is like an empty cabinet, which will be refilled in the next life.

Saint Q23

Complete the following statement.

Saint Anselm’s reasons that God must exist are based on the ideas we have of him as an infinitely great being and that:

A

existence is included in the idea of an infinitely great being.

B

our sources for this idea are very reliable.

C

the world contains many things that we cannot understand.

D

our understanding is not infinitely great.

E

God is not a deceiver.

Philosopher Q24

Descartes famously identifies his “self” with the activity of thinking. Which philosopher would deny that thinking is an indication of self?

A

Confucius

B

Plato

C

Nietzsche

D

Buddha

E

Lao Tzu

Descartes Q25

Descartes regards his proof of the existence of God to be which of the following?

A

Very likely true

B

Very likely false

C

Absolute and certain

D

Unnecessary because faith does not require proof

E

A mere exercise in reasoning

Descartes’s Q26

Descartes’s “causal adequacy principle” states which of the following?

A

Everything that exists must have a cause.

B

Only material things must have causes.

C

Only immaterial things must have causes.

D

A cause must possess at least as much reality as its effect.

E

One must be inspired by a cause in order to think rationally.

Descartes’s Q27

In contrast to Descartes’s “I think, therefore I exist,” the Buddha took pains to point out which of the following?

A

That there is no self at all

B

That many of the things we identify with our self are in fact “not self”

C

That everything in the world is part of the self

D

Both A and B

E

Both B and C

Simmias’s Q28

In Simmias’s objection to Plato’s argument for the immortality of the soul, he compares the body to a lyre and the soul to which of the following?

A

A string

B

A harmony

C

A note

D

A dance

E

A horn

Ontological Q29

Ontological arguments for the existence of God are typically characterized as which of the following?

A

Empirical

B

Non-empirical

C

Rational

D

Non-rational

E

Analogical

Pascal’s Q30

Pascal’s argument for the existence of God is best described as which of the following?

A

Ontological

B

Causal

C

Practical

D

Analogical

E

Empirical

Descartes’s Q31

What is Descartes’s starting point in his causal argument for the existence of God?

A

The idea that one cannot opt out of wagering on God’s existence

B

The idea of God he possesses innately

C

The idea that the soul must exist after the body dies

D

The idea that God presents humanity with a test of faith

E

The idea that heaven is accessible through the intellect

Gaunilo’s Q32

What is Gaunilo’s criticism of Saint Anselm’s ontological argument for the existence of God?

A

Saint Anselm’s ontological argument for the existence of God relies on a mistaken idea of what God is.

B

Saint Anselm’s ontological argument for the existence of God relies on evidence from the senses.

C

The same form of argument can be used to prove that an infinite island exists.

D

The same form of argument can be used to prove that Saint Anselm is God.

E

Saint Anselm’s ontological argument for the existence of God fails to take into account the empirical evidence for God’s existence.

Anselm’s Q33

Which of the following best captures Anselm’s thinking about God’s existence?

A

God exists, because we think he does.

B

It is not possible to think of God as nonexistent.

C

We exist because God thinks about us.

D

Everything you can think of exists.

E

Nothing exists that cannot be thought of.

Buddha’s Q34

Which of the following is NOT one of the Buddha’s four noble truths?

A

Life is suffering.

B

Suffering is caused by desire.

C

Death is the end of suffering.

D

Both A and B

E

Both B and C

Socrates Q35

Why is Socrates unafraid of death at the end of the Phaedo?

A

He believes that his soul is immortal.

B

He believes that the body is merely a hindrance from access to the forms.

C

He believes that God is waiting for him.

D

Both A and B

E

Both B and C

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