# Philosophy of Logic

Lead Author(s): OpenCourse Library, David Such

Source: Open Course Library

Student Price: FREE

This question pack was developed for Open Course Library by Paul Herrick and Mark Storey.

Predicate Logic Translation 1

Which is the correct symbolization for:

Everybody is loved by somebody.

A

(x)(3y) Lxy

B

(3x)(y)Lxy

C

(x)(3y) Lyx

D

(x)(y) (Lxy)

Predicate Logic Translation 2

Which is the correct symbolization for:

Joe loves nobody.

A

(3x) ~Ljx

B

(x)~Lxj

C

(x)(y)Lxj

D

~(3x)Ljx

Predicate Logic Translation 3

Which is the correct symbolization for:

Nobody loves Joe.

A

~(x)Lxj

B

~(3z)Lzj

C

(3x)~Lxj

D

(x)~Jx

Predicate Logic Translation 4

Which is the correct symbolization for:

Somebody loves everybody.

A

(3x)(y)Lxy

B

(3x)(y)Lyx

C

(3x)(3y) Lyx

D

(x)(y)Lyx

Predicate Logic Translation 5

Which is the correct symbolization for: Joe loves Susan.

A

(x)(y)(Ljs)

B

Ljs

C

Lsj

D

(J)(S)Ljs

Predicate Logic Translation 6

Which is the correct symbolization for: Somebody is loved by everybody.

A

(x)(3y)(Lxy)

B

(3x)(y)(Lxy)

C

(3x)(y)(Lyx)

D

(x)(y)(Lyx)

Predicate Logic Translation 7

Read the following argument and then the additional item. Would the addition of the item strengthen the argument, weaken the argument, or leave the strength of the argument unchanged?

Consider each addition separately from the rest.

On a visit to the Kingdom of Ruritania, ten adults were observed and all ten went to church on Sunday. The conclusion drawn is that all adult Ruritanians go to church on Sunday. Does each suggested alteration strengthen the argument (S), weaken it W), or does it leave the argument unchanged (U)? Consider each alteration independently of the others.

A

S

B

W

C

U

Predicate Logic Translations 8

Read the following argument and then the additional item. Would the addition of the item strengthen the argument, weaken the argument, or leave the strength of the argument unchanged?

Consider each addition separately from the rest.

On a visit to the Kingdom of Ruritania, ten adults were observed and all ten went to church on Sunday. The conclusion drawn is that all adult Ruritanians go to church on Sunday. Does each suggested alteration strengthen the argument (S), weaken it W), or does it leave the argument unchanged (U)? Consider each alteration independently of the others.

Additional item: We change the conclusion to: All Ruritanians go to church on Sunday.

A

S

B

W

C

U

Predicate Logic Translation 9

On a visit to the Kingdom of Ruritania, ten adults were observed and all ten went to church on Sunday. The conclusion drawn is that all adult Ruritanians go to church on Sunday. Does each suggested alteration strengthen the argument (S), weaken it W), or does it leave the argument unchanged (U)? Consider each alteration independently of the others.

Additional item Only ten adult men were observed and all wore unusually long beards, whereas no other Ruritanians wore beards

A

S

B

W

C

U

Predicate Logic Translation 10

On a visit to the Kingdom of Ruritania, ten adults were observed and all ten went to church on Sunday. The conclusion drawn is that all adult Ruritanians go to church on Sunday. Does each suggested alteration strengthen the argument (S), weaken it W), or does it leave the argument unchanged (U)? Consider each alteration independently of the others.

We change the conclusion to: Many adult Ruritanians go to church on Sunday.

A

S

B

W

C

U

Predicate Logic Translation 11

On a visit to the Kingdom of Ruritania, ten adults were observed and all ten went to church on Sunday. The conclusion drawn is that all adult Ruritanians go to church on Sunday. Does each suggested alteration strengthen the argument (S), weaken it W), or does it leave the argument unchanged (U)? Consider each alteration independently of the others.

Addition: The observed Ruritanians were all in their twenties

A

S

B

W

C

U

Predicate Logic Translation 12

What is the proper symbolization of:

Joe is a chemist

A

Jc

B

cJ

C

Cj

D

(x)Jxc

Predicate Logic Translation 13

Which is the correct symbolization for:

Susan is older than Joey.

A

sOj

B

Ojs

C

JoS

D

sOJ

E

Osj

Predicate Logic Translation 14

The language of predicate logic includes the language TL

A

True

B

False

Predicate Logic Translation 15

The present year is 2007.

A

True

B

False

Truth Tables 1

On a truth table test the following argument for validity:1. (A v B)2. A & ~A3. A > C/ ~C

A

Valid

B

Invalid

C

Indeterminate

Truth Tables 2

On a truth table, test the following two formulas for equivalence:~(~A & ~B)A v B

A

Equivalent

B

Not equivalent

Truth Tables 3

On a sheet of paper, construct a truth table for the following formula: ~(A v B) & ~(~A & ~B) Choose the logical status of the sentence.

A

Tautology

B

C

Contingent

D

Republican

Truth Tables 4

A row of a truth table represents

A

a 'truth vector"

B

a sum of money

C

a possible assignment of truth values

D

an actuality in the sum of a truth functional valuation

Truth Tables 5

On a sheet of paper, construct a truth table for the following formula: (~A v B) v ~(A > B) Choose the logical status of the sentence.

A

Tautology

B

C

Contingent

D