# Philosophy of Logic

Lead Author(s): **OpenCourse Library, David Such**

Source: **Open Course Library**

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This question pack was developed for Open Course Library by Paul Herrick and Mark Storey.

This content is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.

Which is the correct symbolization for:

Everybody is loved by somebody.

(x)(3y) Lxy

(3x)(y)Lxy

(x)(3y) Lyx

(x)(y) (Lxy)

Which is the correct symbolization for:

Joe loves nobody.

(3x) ~Ljx

(x)~Lxj

(x)(y)Lxj

~(3x)Ljx

Which is the correct symbolization for:

Nobody loves Joe.

~(x)Lxj

~(3z)Lzj

(3x)~Lxj

(x)~Jx

Which is the correct symbolization for:

Somebody loves everybody.

(3x)(y)Lxy

(3x)(y)Lyx

(3x)(3y) Lyx

(x)(y)Lyx

Which is the correct symbolization for: Joe loves Susan.

(x)(y)(Ljs)

Ljs

Lsj

(J)(S)Ljs

Which is the correct symbolization for: Somebody is loved by everybody.

(x)(3y)(Lxy)

(3x)(y)(Lxy)

(3x)(y)(Lyx)

(x)(y)(Lyx)

Read the following argument and then the additional item. Would the addition of the item strengthen the argument, weaken the argument, or leave the strength of the argument unchanged?

Consider each addition separately from the rest.

On a visit to the Kingdom of Ruritania, ten adults were observed and all ten went to church on Sunday. The conclusion drawn is that all adult Ruritanians go to church on Sunday. Does each suggested alteration strengthen the argument (S), weaken it W), or does it leave the argument unchanged (U)? Consider each alteration independently of the others.

Additional item: All ten observed adults were men.

S

W

U

Read the following argument and then the additional item. Would the addition of the item strengthen the argument, weaken the argument, or leave the strength of the argument unchanged?

Consider each addition separately from the rest.

On a visit to the Kingdom of Ruritania, ten adults were observed and all ten went to church on Sunday. The conclusion drawn is that all adult Ruritanians go to church on Sunday. Does each suggested alteration strengthen the argument (S), weaken it W), or does it leave the argument unchanged (U)? Consider each alteration independently of the others.

Additional item: We change the conclusion to: All Ruritanians go to church on Sunday.

S

W

U

On a visit to the Kingdom of Ruritania, ten adults were observed and all ten went to church on Sunday. The conclusion drawn is that all adult Ruritanians go to church on Sunday. Does each suggested alteration strengthen the argument (S), weaken it W), or does it leave the argument unchanged (U)? Consider each alteration independently of the others.

Additional item Only ten adult men were observed and all wore unusually long beards, whereas no other Ruritanians wore beards

S

W

U

We change the conclusion to: Many adult Ruritanians go to church on Sunday.

S

W

U

Addition: The observed Ruritanians were all in their twenties

S

W

U

What is the proper symbolization of:

Joe is a chemist

Jc

cJ

Cj

(x)Jxc

Which is the correct symbolization for:

Susan is older than Joey.

sOj

Ojs

JoS

sOJ

Osj

The language of predicate logic includes the language TL

True

False

The present year is 2007.

True

False

On a truth table test the following argument for validity:1. (A v B)2. A & ~A3. A > C/ ~C

Valid

Invalid

Indeterminate

On a truth table, test the following two formulas for equivalence:~(~A & ~B)A v B

Equivalent

Not equivalent

On a sheet of paper, construct a truth table for the following formula: ~(A v B) & ~(~A & ~B) Choose the logical status of the sentence.

Tautology

Contradiction

Contingent

Republican

A row of a truth table represents

a 'truth vector"

a sum of money

a possible assignment of truth values

an actuality in the sum of a truth functional valuation

On a sheet of paper, construct a truth table for the following formula: (~A v B) v ~(A > B) Choose the logical status of the sentence.

Tautology

Contradiction

Contingent

Answer cannot be determined..