Morality and Ethics
Morality and Ethics

Morality and Ethics

Lead Author(s): Saylor Academy

Source: Saylor

Student Price: FREE

Questions on morality and ethics in relation to Aristotle, Nietzsche, Mill and more

This content is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.

Kant’s Q1

According to Kant’s ethics, which of the following statements is true?

A

It is permissible to lie to someone if it was in his or her best interest.

B

It is permissible to lie to someone as long as there are no negative consequences.

C

It is permissible to lie to someone if it helps many other people.

D

It is impermissible to lie to someone unless it is to prevent them from doing something bad.

E

It is impermissible to lie.

Mill Q2

According to Mill, the aim of ethical behavior is to do which of the following?

A

Maximize happiness for everyone.

B

Maximize happiness for oneself.

C

Maximize rationality in one’s actions.

D

Maximize virtue in one’s actions.

E

Minimize unhappiness for oneself.

Mill’s Q3

According to Mill’s ethics, which of the following is true?

A

It is permissible to lie if it benefits a great number of people.

B

It is permissible to lie if nobody ever finds out.

C

It is permissible to lie if one is a virtuous person overall.

D

It is permissible to lie if it furthers one’s ends.

E

It is impermissible to lie.

Aristotle’s Q4

Aristotle’s ethical theory tries to answer which question?

A

How do I tell the difference between right and wrong?

B

What is the difference between good and evil?

C

What do I need to do in order to go to heaven?

D

What is the best way to live one’s life?

E

What is the least amount of effort I need to exert to be good?

Aristotle Q5

Complete the following statement.

According to Aristotle, “the good” is different for every different type of thing. Each thing is “good” when it:

A

is beneficial to people.

B

fulfills its function.

C

brings people happiness.

D

preserves itself.

E

makes the world a better place.

Aristotle Q6

Complete the following statement.

According to Aristotle, being virtuous is a matter of:

A

habit.

B

nature.

C

nobility.

D

thoughtfulness.

E

compassion.

Kant Q7

Complete the following statement.

According to Kant, ethics is a matter of:

A

habit.

B

nature.

C

nobility.

D

rationality.

E

compassion.

Ren Q8

Confucius’s concept of ren most closely resembles which of the following?

A

Rationality

B

Intellect

C

Alienation

D

Self-interest

E

Compassion

Nietzsche’s Philosophy Q9

The major innovation that Nietzsche’s philosophy introduces is that it pits changeable ______________ up against unchanging sources of truth and meaning, such as science and religion.

A

skepticism

B

gambling

C

culture

D

human nature

E

suffering

Terrorist Q10

If you decided to murder one terrorist in order to save a group of hostages, which of the following philosophers would definitely not approve of your action?

A

Kant

B

Mill

C

Aristotle

D

Buddha

E

Confucius

Kant Q11

In Kant’s ethics, which of the following is true?

A

Persons are awarded a fundamental respect.

B

There are no “gray areas” when it comes to right and wrong.

C

There are sometimes “gray areas” when it comes to right and wrong.

D

A and B only

E

A and C only

Kant Q12

Kant’s ethical theory tries to answer what question?

A

What is the good for human beings?

B

How can I tell if an action is right or wrong?

C

What do I need to do in order to go to heaven?

D

What is the best way to live one’s life?

E

What is the least amount of effort I need to exert to be good?

Kant Q13

Kant’s fundamental moral principle states which of the following?

A

We should act only on maxims that we wish to become universal laws.

B

We should act only when it will do no harm.

C

We should act always to maximize happiness.

D

We should act always in accordance with ritual.

E

We should act always in accordance with virtue.

Mill Q14

Mill argues that intellectual pleasures are more valuable than sensual pleasures in order to do which of the following?

A

Privilege philosophers and scientists in his ethics

B

Establish a hierarchy of good and bad people

C

Differentiate human morality from that of mere animals

D

Discourage debauchery

E

Demonstrate that intelligence corresponds to goodness

Mill Q15

Mill is critical of those who think that moral behavior should be guided by which of the following?

A

Rationality

B

Intuition

C

Consequences

D

Virtue

E

Circumstances

Mill Q16

Mill’s fundamental moral principle states which of the following?

A

We should act only on maxims that we wish to become universal laws.

B

We should act only when it will do no harm.

C

We should act always to maximize happiness.

D

We should act always in accordance with ritual.

E

We should act always in accordance with virtue.

Nietzsche Q17

Nietzsche uses the phrase “herd instinct” to explain what feature of human society?

A

Intelligence

B

Organization of the state

C

Cruelty

D

Ethics

E

Science

Categorical Q18

When is an ethical imperative considered to be categorical?

A

When the ethical imperative depends on the circumstances of the action

B

When the ethical imperative depends on the character of the person performing the action

C

When the ethical imperative depends on the consequences of the action

D

When the ethical imperative depends on the seriousness of the action

E

When the ethical imperative holds in all cases, universally

Nietzsche’s Famous Q19

Which of the following accurately captures the intended meaning of Nietzsche’s famous assertion that “God is dead?”

A

The time has come to reconfirm the traditional values of our society.

B

All of the certainty traditionally associated with science and religion is an illusion.

C

As a society, the concept of God is no longer culturally significant for us.

D

Both A and B

E

Both B and C

Philosopher Q20

Which philosopher would require that we calculate the amount of happiness and unhappiness likely to be produced by an action in order to decide if it is right or wrong?

A

Aristotle

B

Kant

C

Mill

D

Nietzsche

E

The Buddha

Aristotle Q21

Why is courage a virtue for Aristotle?

A

Courageous people help their fellow human beings.

B

Courageous people are natural leaders.

C

Courage is something that some people are born with.

D

Courage results in positive consequences.

E

Courage is a mean between cowardice and rashness.

Aristotle Q22

Why is happiness important to Aristotle’s ethical theory?

A

Happiness is the good for human beings.

B

Happiness is the absence of pain, and pain should be avoided.

C

Happiness is the result of acting from rational moral principles.

D

Every human being has the right to happiness.

E

Every human being has the duty to make others happy.

Confucius Q23

According to Confucius, a society can become virtuous if which of the following holds true?

A

Its ruler is virtuous.

B

Its members engage in productive activity.

C

Its rulers are philosophers.

D

Both A and B

E

Both B and C

CC BY 3.0 - Saylor - Nikolaus Fogle and Chad Redwing

Content on this site is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License .

Saylor Academy and Saylor.org® are trade names of the Constitution Foundation, a 501(c)(3) organization through which our educational activities are conducted.

Course Designer: Nikolaus Fogle and Chad Redwing