Effective Public Speaking
Effective Public Speaking

Effective Public Speaking

Lead Author(s): George Griffin and Contributors

Student Price: Contact us to learn more

Designed to teach the skills and build the confidence your students need to become effective public speakers.

What is a Top Hat Textbook?

Top Hat has reimagined the textbook – one that is designed to improve student readership through interactivity, is updated by a community of collaborating professors with the newest information, and accessed online from anywhere, at anytime.


  • Top Hat Textbooks are built full of embedded videos, interactive timelines, charts, graphs, and video lessons from the authors themselves
  • High-quality and affordable, at a significant fraction in cost vs traditional publisher textbooks
 

Key features in this textbook

Effective Public Speaking gives students the confidence and competence in preparing and presenting speeches with real student videos, a comprehensive glossary, up to five in-class activities per chapter, and a full chapter on controlling speech anxiety.
Using Bongo for Top Hat, students can practice their oral communication skills and get feedback from instructors or their peers.
Built-in assessment questions embedded throughout chapters so students can read a little, do a little, and test themselves to see what they know!

Comparison of Public Speaking Textbooks

Consider adding Top Hat’s Effective Public Speaking textbook to your upcoming course. We’ve put together a textbook comparison to make it easy for you in your upcoming evaluation.

Top Hat

George Griffin, Effective Public Speaking, Only one edition needed

McGraw-Hill

Stephen Lucas, The Art of Public Speaking, 12th Edition

Pearson

Beebe & Beebe, Public Speaking: An Audience-Centered Approach, 9th Edition

Pearson

Beebe & Beebe, Public Speaking Handbook, 5th Edition

Pricing

Average price of textbook across most common format

Up to 40-60% more affordable

Lifetime access on any device

$121.80

Hardcover print text only

$99.29

Hardcover print text only

$114.52

Hardcover print text only

Always up-to-date content, constantly revised by community of professors

Content meets standard for Introduction to Anatomy & Physiology course, and is updated with the latest content

In-Book Interactivity

Includes embedded multi-media files and integrated software to enhance visual presentation of concepts directly in textbook

Only available with supplementary resources at additional cost

Only available with supplementary resources at additional cost

Only available with supplementary resources at additional cost

Customizable

Ability to revise, adjust and adapt content to meet needs of course and instructor

All-in-one Platform

Access to additional questions, test banks, and slides available within one platform

Pricing

Average price of textbook across most common format

Top Hat

George Griffin, Effective Public Speaking, Only one edition needed

Up to 40-60% more affordable

Lifetime access on any device

McGraw-Hill

Stephen Lucas, The Art of Public Speaking, 12th Edition

$121.80

Hardcover print text only

Pearson

Beebe & Beebe, Public Speaking: An Audience-Centered Approach, 9th Edition

$99.29

Hardcover print text only

Pearson

Beebe & Beebe, Public Speaking Handbook, 5th Edition

$114.52

Hardcover print text only

Always up-to-date content, constantly revised by community of professors

Constantly revised and updated by a community of professors with the latest content

Top Hat

George Griffin, Effective Public Speaking, Only one edition needed

McGraw-Hill

Stephen Lucas, The Art of Public Speaking, 12th Edition

Pearson

Beebe & Beebe, Public Speaking: An Audience-Centered Approach, 9th Edition

Pearson

Beebe & Beebe, Public Speaking Handbook, 5th Edition

In-book Interactivity

Includes embedded multi-media files and integrated software to enhance visual presentation of concepts directly in textbook

Top Hat

George Griffin, Effective Public Speaking, Only one edition needed

McGraw-Hill

Stephen Lucas, The Art of Public Speaking, 12th Edition

Pearson

Beebe & Beebe, Public Speaking: An Audience-Centered Approach, 9th Edition

Pearson

Beebe & Beebe, Public Speaking Handbook, 5th Edition

Customizable

Ability to revise, adjust and adapt content to meet needs of course and instructor

Top Hat

George Griffin, Effective Public Speaking, Only one edition needed

McGraw-Hill

Stephen Lucas, The Art of Public Speaking, 12th Edition

Pearson

Beebe & Beebe, Public Speaking: An Audience-Centered Approach, 9th Edition

Pearson

Beebe & Beebe, Public Speaking Handbook, 5th Edition

All-in-one Platform

Access to additional questions, test banks, and slides available within one platform

Top Hat

George Griffin, Effective Public Speaking, Only one edition needed

McGraw-Hill

Stephen Lucas, The Art of Public Speaking, 12th Edition

Pearson

Beebe & Beebe, Public Speaking: An Audience-Centered Approach, 9th Edition

Pearson

Beebe & Beebe, Public Speaking Handbook, 5th Edition

About this textbook

Lead Authors

George Griffin, Professor of SpeechKeiser University

George Griffin earned his degrees at the University of West Florida and Auburn University. He has been teaching college, business seminars and workshops for over 30 years, while still doing public speaking engagements for non-profit organizations. Currently, he is serving as the Professor of Speech at Keiser University, Orlando, and as Adjunct Professor at Stetson University. George is also the author of “STAGE FRIGHT! A Student-Friendly Guide to Managing the Jitters.”

Contributing Authors

Wade CorneliusNew Mexico State University

Kathryn DederichsUniversity of St. Thomas

Morgan GintherInstructional Designer at Texas A & M

Luke GreenSt. Cloud Technical and Community College

María Elena BermúdezGeorgia State University

Daryle NaganoEl Camino College

Wendy YarberryFlorida State College at Jacksonville

Allen DavisIndiana University

Jasmine RobertsOhio State University

Krista MacDonaldDoña Ana Community College

Explore this textbook

Read the fully unlocked textbook below, and if you’re interested in learning more, get in touch to see how you can use this textbook in your course today.

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Comprehensive Glossary 

Figure 16.1. Photograph of the dictionary definition of 'focus', a key aspect of your scholarly success! [1]​

Table of Contents

Welcome to your comprehensive glossary for the Effective Public Speaking interactive text! This glossary can be used for clarification, as a reference guide, or as a study tool for tests and examinations. We picked out key terms that are important to each Module of your course and gave them all well rounded glossary entries in the order that they appear in the textbook. Not only do these entries include a definition of the word or concept, but they also include an effective example, and an explanation of how the term relates back to the content you are learning in your course! The list below outlines the key aspects of the comprehensive glossary. Happy studying!

  • Key term: Important term in the book for students to remember.
  • Define: An explanation of what that key term means.
  • Example: A real world or effective example of that term.
  • Relate: How that term relates back to the course content.


Module 1 - Welcome to Effective Public Speaking 

Movie star Douglas Fairbanks

speaking in New York City in 1918 to help raise money for WWI. [2]​


Interactive - adj
Define: Unlike standard paper textbooks, this book requires action and input from you, the reader. 
Example: As you come across questions in the middle of a module, go ahead and enter your answers or thoughts. Depending on how your instructor assigns tasks, there could be many ways to interact with the textbook inside and outside of class. 
Relate: This interactivity gives you an opportunity to demonstrate your understanding of the material to your instructor as well as see what other students in your class think of the information in real time.

Competence vs. Confidence - noun. 
Define: Competence means gaining the knowledge of how to write and deliver a speech. Confidence is the willingness to actually get up and DO it.
Example: Many people have learned how to play a musical instrument, but they are not willing to play in front of an audience. They have the competence, but not the confidence.
Relate: It should be obvious, but public speaking without including the public is pretty useless. The only reason to write a speech is to share it with an audience, so faith in your ability to give a speech is essential.

Symbol - noun.
Define: A word, gesture, picture, etc., that is used to represent an object or idea.
Example: 
A wave of the hand can be a symbol for “hello;” a smile can be symbolic of friendliness; the words “Bassett hound” bring to mind a long, short, long-eared friendly critter without the need of the animal actually being present.
Relate: 
The more carefully the symbols are chosen to match the understanding of the speaker and listener, the more accurate the communication will be.

Encoding - verb.
Define: The process of putting your thoughts and ideas into “code” by choosing just the right combination of symbols, preparing you to send your message to others.
Example: 
When you were a little kid, you might have passed notes in class that were “encoded,” such as A=1, B=2, C=3, D=4, etc. So if the teacher found your note, they would never figure out what you meant by, “This teacher is 214!”
Relate: 
Effective communication requires that we are careful to encode in a way that ensures our listeners will understand our message in a way that's as close as possible to our original, intended meaning. 

Decoding - verb.
Define: The process of receiving a message from someone else and translating their “coded” message into your own thoughts and understanding.
Example: 
When your friend in grammar school received that note you passed, and understood exactly what you meant by, “This teacher is 214!”
Relate: 
The relationship between the speaker and listeners is a constant dialog - back and forth- of encoding and decoding messages as accurately as possible.

Empowerment - noun.
Define: Giving the ability, skills, talent and the power to accomplish great goals.
Example: 
As a student, you may see ways the class structure could be more effective, but you are not empowered to make those changes; only your instructor has that authority.
Relate: 
Since effective public speaking means that “when you speak, something happens,” learning how to be as effective as possible could lead you to make important changes in your world by way of your skillful use of communication.

Intrapersonal Communications.
Define: Conversations that you are having with yourself, including the decision-making processes we go through in our every day life.
Example: 
We all have a non-stop dialog running in our heads, as we think about issues, ideas, things we will be doing later on today, etc. “Where should I go for lunch today? I had chicken yesterday, so…”
Relate: 
To be effective speakers, we need to fully understand our own beliefs and ideas -- why we advocate what we advocate. Ask yourself, “How did I come to the conclusions that ___ is wrong?”  If we can explain it to ourselves in a coherent way, we can then think through how to explain it to others.

Interpersonal Communications.
Define: The conversations and relationships we have one-on-one.
Example: 
Interpersonal communications include your conversations with your best friends, your family members, your roommate, or even your co-workers.
Relate: 
Interpersonal communications can not only allow you to think through some of your ideas out loud in a non-threatening environment, but they can provide a sounding board to try out explaining some of those ideas you came up with during your intrapersonal musings. Your newly-learned communication skills can also be used to improve and enhance some of your interpersonal relationships.

Small Group Communications.
Define: Three or more people working together on a common goal, project or problem. 
Example: 
Undoubtedly you been forced into a small group project in class (hopefully you were not the one stuck doing all the work!). But, a group of friends who form a study group before the final exam could be truly functional and successful.
Relate: 
Small group communication is most effective when all participants share equally in the exchange of ideas; there is no one main speaker doing all the communicating.

Public Speaking. 
Define:  This is the traditional format of “giving a speech,” with one person responsible for speaking to many others. 
Example: You will do plenty of this in this particular class, but there are many other situations when you will need to speak to a group -- in other classes, at work, at public hearings and town hall meetings, etc.
Relate: Although this will be a major focus in this class, look for ways that the concepts and techniques of public speaking can be adapted and used in other forms of communication.

Mass Communication
Define: In simple terms, communication aimed at masses of people rather than a more specific, targeted audience.
Example: You may never meet or know your specific audience members in mass communication, as mass communication can include speaking on the radio or television, posting in online media, newspapers, magazines, etc.
Relate: The more comfortable you become with your newly developed communication skills, the better you will be able to adapt and apply them up and down the scale of intrapersonal, interpersonal, small group, public speaking and mass communications.

Critical Thinking. 
Define:  A way of thinking through a problem or issue using objective evidence and logic to reach a conclusion.
Example: Rooting for your hometown sports team is a common practice. But determining which team in the league is the best would require an honest evaluation of win/loss records, statistical probabilities based on past performance, studying injury reports, etc. You may like one team better, but critical thinking will tell you which team is probably the best.
Relate: One of the purposes of effective communication is to make something happen. A well-structured persuasive argument needs to incorporate critical thinking rather than simple emotion in order to sway listeners to your point of view. If you used critical thinking to determine your position, you will be able to better explain it to others.


Module 2 - Controlling Speech Anxiety

Speaking in public is scary. It doesn't have to

be. [3]​


Demystify - verb
Define: To make something easier to understand and less intimidating by removing the mystery around it. 
Example: 
Learning exactly how the electoral college works would clarify the process of how we elect a U.S. president.
Relate: 
As long as your perception of giving a speech remains a scary, mysterious boogie monster, it can’t be beaten. But the more you understand (demystify) that nervousness, the better you can handle it.

Primordial - adj
Define:  Biologically, in the earliest stages of evolutionary development.
Example: According to the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History, humans and great apes shared a common ancestor over 6 million years ago. But the story of our adaptation and survival is written in our genes.
Relate: The point is that if you feel like running away when you see a large group of eyes staring at you, that was probably ingrained in you as a survival technique millions of years ago, and due to years of evolution it remains a natural reaction for you today.

Adrenaline - noun
Define:  Technically, the hormone epinephrine, which is produced by the body to raise blood pressure and stimulate the heart. But the term is used to describe the body’s reaction to fear, stress, excitement, or increased energy.
Example: We refer to getting an “adrenaline rush” from playing sports, go to a scary movie, or giving a speech.
Relate: 
Understanding that the “adrenaline rush” is a natural, chemical reaction happening in your body can make it easier to recognize and control. Don’t try to pretend it isn’t real, because it is! But it doesn’t have to get the best of you.

Systematic Desensitization. 
Define:  A method of treating fears and phobias by being exposed to a series of stressful situations, each one worse than the last, and learning how to apply relaxation techniques to reduce them. 
Example: For example, if someone has a fear of snakes, they might want to become comfortable looking at a picture of a snake. Next, they might look at a snake in a cage. Eventually, as they become comfortable with each progressive step, they might work up to actually touching a snake.
Relate: For people with severe, debilitating speech anxiety, a step-by-step program can be designed to progressively work through the fears of public speaking just like any other fear.

Glossophobia - noun
Define:  A needlessly fancy word for the fear of public speaking.
Example: Glossophobia is usually used to describe more severe cases of nervousness; more than just experiencing the “jitters”. 
Relate: Don’t worry, unless you are just trying to impress your friends, you will never need to use this word again. Ever.

Procrastinate - verb
Define:  To deliberately put off doing something that you know you should be doing now.
Example: Some people claim that they work better under pressure, so they wait until the last minute to write a paper, study for an exam, etc.
Relate: 
If you are trying to guarantee that your speech sounds spontaneous in delivery, procrastinating will ensure that. But if you are trying to overcome nervousness, the more you prepare and the earlier you prepare, the better.

Cognitive Restructuring. 
Define: The process of recognizing negative, inaccurate thoughts within us and replacing them with more positive, helpful thoughts.
Example: Maybe you have been telling yourself for years that you are no good at giving a speech, and therefore you have accepted that as true. But what if you challenge that idea by telling yourself, “Of course I can do this, if I put in the work and prepare effectively.”
Relate:
​ One of the most important aspects of overcoming speech anxiety is to believe in your own abilities. Trust yourself. Other people do this every day, and you are just as smart and talented as they are!

Delivery Mode. 
Define:  As you can see in Module 11, there are four basic delivery modes, or styles of delivering a speech.
Example: The four styles, or modes of delivery, are Reading a Manuscript, Memorized, Impromptu, and Extemporaneous.
Relate: 
In general, Extemporaneous delivery is considered most effective, as it incorporates most of the advantages and eliminates most of the negative aspects of the other styles.

Isometric Exercises. 
Define: Isometric exercises zero in on specific muscles and strengthen them by pressuring them with either another part of the body or an immovable object.
Example: Making a fist and pressing it against the palm of your other hand, or pressing against a door frame with your hands or arms, would be isometrics.
Relate: 
Our goal here is not the strengthening of your muscles, but rather the sensation of creating muscle tension and then releasing it, as this technique helps the body physically relax.

Biofeedback - noun
Define:  This is the practice of learning to control aspects of the bodily functions previously thought out of our conscious control.
Example: Examples of biofeedback would include consciously lowering a heart rate, raising a body temperature, altering blood pressure, affecting breathing rates, etc.
Relate: 
Even if it sounds a little like science fiction, learning “mind-over-body” techniques have been helping people for nearly 80 years. Biofeedback therapists are able to teach the techniques to help the body relax.

Hyperventilation - noun
Define:  Technically this is the result of repeated, short breaths that reduce the carbon dioxide and increase the oxygen in your system, causing you to feel lightheaded.
Example: Many people have experienced this sensation -- you get nervous which leads to rapid breathing, the rapid breathing makes you feel a little faint, which makes you more nervous.
Relate: 
Slow, controlled breathing not only helps with the delivery of your speech, but it also helps you feel better physically.

Emulate - verb
Define:  Trying to be like, or even be better than, someone you admire or respect.
Example: Elton John considered the musician Leon Russell as a mentor and inspiration. As as result, he tried to emulate Russell’s musical styles in his performances.
Relate: 
In public speaking, you can find speakers who seem to do it “just right.” Study their style. Emulation does not mean doing an imitation, but rather trying to incorporate those successful techniques you see in others into your own style.

​Stock Arguments. 
Define:  The most common, often used (and overused) arguments on controversial issues.
Example: People who advocate legalizing recreational marijuana, for example, tend to bring up the same handful of stock arguments - no one has ever died from an overdose, pot is safer than alcohol or cigarettes, etc.
Relate: 
Your speech professor has heard these same topics over and over, and is therefore very familiar with the stock arguments. (Surprise and impress your professor with some new and original arguments!)

Catch 22. 
Define: This phrase was the name of a novel (and a movie) by Joseph Heller. The title referred to a dilemma that if a war pilot was mentally unstable, he didn’t have to fly any more missions. However, if the pilot asked for a mental evaluation, that was considered the process of a rational mind.
Example: “Catch 22” has come to mean the solution to the problem is blocked by the problem itself. For example, you can’t get a job without some work experience, but you can’t get work experience unless someone gives you a job!
Relate: 
In this case of speech anxiety, I may be nervous in front of the audience because I’m afraid they will see my fear; but the fear of the audience seeing me nervous is what is bringing on my nervousness!

​Neutral position. 
Define: This position is the stance you take in front of the audience before your speech begins. You are not yet in gear - you are still in neutral. 
Example: Getting yourself set in front of the room before saying your first words helps you start off more confidently and gives an impression of a very professional appearance to the audience.
Relate: 
Set your feet in a way that balances your body weight, with your hands and arms loosely at your side. This technique minimizes fidgeting and allows you to use your hands freely when the speech begins.


Module 3 - Communication Ethics

What are the ethics of public speaking? [4]​


​​Ethical Absolutism. 
Define:  A strict code of ethics in which right and wrong never vary - You must always do these things, or you must never do those things. There are no exceptions to the rule.
Example: An example might be, one must never lie, under any circumstances.
Relate: 
Most of us acknowledge there are times when telling “the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth” could create problems, such as being asked, “How are you today?” when you are angry, or, “How did you like the song I wrote for you?” when you really didn’t, at all.

​​Situational Ethics. 
Define:  An ethical approach that does not maintain absolute right and wrong guidelines, but acknowledges that the situation one is in could affect judgement.
Example: A student may agree that cheating on a test is wrong, and should never be done. Another student, however, may be faced with the dilemma of losing a scholarship if they fail this final exam -- therefore, in this situation, they make an exception to the “no-cheating” rule.
Relate: 
As public speakers, we run a great credibility risk by using situational ethics. In a way, the listeners don’t know when to believe we are telling the truth or if there is a “situation” we’re not sharing that is shaping our ethical decisions.

Culturally Relative Ethics. 
Define: Out ethical decisions are based or influenced, at least in part, by the culture in which we are raised.
Example: Some students who come from countries where conservative religious views control laws and practices may have a hard time accepting some of the laws in the US regarding abortion or LGBTQ rights.
Relate: While preparing a speech, consider the cultural variety of your audience members. Might some of them disagree with your ethical conclusions based on the culture in which they were raised?

Ends and Means Ethics. 
Define:  The theory that my ultimate goal (the ends) is so important that the means I use to accomplish my goals is not very important.
Example: The “ticking time bomb” scenario is often used to illustrate Ends and Means Ethics -- Acknowledging that torturing someone is wrong, if a suspect has information about a bomb about to go off killing hundreds or thousands of people, would it be justified to torture the suspect to get the information needed to stop the bomb from going off?
Relate: The public speaker runs a risk of lost credibility any time they use an ethical approach that justifies being less than honest with the audience. Even in an “Ends and Means” situation, the speaker cannot be sure the audience would agree with his justifications for breaking an agreed upon moral code.

Ethos-Centered Ethics. 
Define: The theory that ethical decisions should be made based on whether or not they will damage or enhance a speaker’s ethos (credibility and believability)
Example: Suppose a student made up a story about his brother living in an abandoned car in order to get the class to donate to a fund for the homeless. Even though the money collected goes to a good cause, how much will that speaker be trusted in the future when the audience finds out the speaker doesn’t even have a brother?
Relate: 
A speaker should not consider whether or not an audience might find out what ethical decisions were made -- assume they WILL find out. What will the repercussions be? If the result is damaged credibility or believability, don’t do it!

Credo - noun
Define:  The word Credo comes from the Latin word meaning “I believe.” A Credo is a statement of the beliefs or goals that guide someone’s actions.
Example: By developing a specific list of beliefs and goals for behaviors, we can use that list to test possible decisions - when considering an action, we can look to see if that action would violate any of the things we said we believe in.
Relate: Developing your own credo of ethical beliefs as a public speaker could minimize agonizing decisions down the road. For example, if you have as part of your  Credo, “I will not tell my audience any statistics that I cannot prove with solid evidence,” you will avoid the temptation of rounding off numbers from memory rather than taking the time to verify them accurately.

Ethically Sound. 
Define:  Goals or decisions that are made in accordance with an agreed upon set of moral guidelines.
Example: Suppose an advertising agency promotes a product by telling complete lies about how good the product is. They served their client by helping sell more product, which is good. But lying to the general public to accomplish that goal would go against accepted guidelines. 
Relate: 
As public speakers, we need to carefully weigh everything we say and do in front of an audience to make sure we are not  not violating moral guidelines, perhaps in an effort to be “successful.”

Half-truth. 
Define:  A statement that contains some truth, but also deliberately includes or omits information with the intent to deceive the listener.
Example: A recent tax cut proposal claims that the average household will receive a $4000 increase in income. What is not pointed out is that the increase takes place over an 8-year period, or about $500 increase per year. While a $4000 raise sounds great, a $500 raise per year ($9.62 per week?) is not quite as exciting. 
Relate: 
The credibility of a speaker can be severely damaged if they are deliberately misleading the audience by only providing part of the facts rather than all of the information.

Sound Reasoning. 
Define:  Using accepted logical approaches (Deductive, Inductive, Causal, Analogical, etc.) to reach decisions and make recommendations.
Example: Using sound reasoning also means avoiding using fallacious reasoning -- making an argument sound stronger or weaker than it really is. “You can’t trust his statistics on gun crime - he’s with the NRA.” (Ad hominem fallacy, attacking the person instead of the issue.)
Relate: 
Part of your ethical decision making is using solid reasoning to reach your conclusions and recommendations. Again, remember that your reputation is on the line when you speak to an audience - protect it!

Sexist Language. 
Define: Language that either promotes, denigrates, or excludes one gender or in some way implies that one gender is superior or inferior to the other.
Example: References to a “mailman” instead of a mail carrier; a “policeman” rather than a police officer; a “Congressman” rather than a Representative all assume that these jobs are done by males. 
Relate: 
It’s always a good idea to do a final “language scrub” to make sure sexist language hasn’t creeped into your speech. 

Racist Language. 
Define:  Language that either promotes, denigrates, or excludes one race, or in some way implies that one race is superior or inferior to others.
Example: Racist language can be overt, implied or what is known as “dog whistle” language. Derogatory terms for other races are obvious. Words such as “uppity” are often used to imply racist insults. But terms such as “states rights,” while appearing benign, often are used because they were used to defend slavery, oppose integration, etc.
Relate: 
A good speaker will avoid any language that is designed or can be used to alienate any race or cultural group. Try to use terminology that is inclusive of all audience members.

Ageist Language. 
Define:  Language that implies stereotypes, prejudice or discrimination based on a person’s age.
Example: Assuming that the older people in the audience won’t understand technical concepts, or older speakers assuming “you’re too young to appreciate this…” are ageist comments.
Relate: 
Think of the words that are used to describe elderly people -- Feisty? Crabby? Cranky? Crotchety? Just like avoiding racist and sexist language, ageism can alienate audience members as well.

Plagiarism - noun
Define: In its simplest form, plagiarism means using someone else’s words or work and taking credit as if you did it yourself.
Example: Whether a speaker takes an entire speech and pretends it is original, or takes sentences and paragraphs without quotations from several sources and combines them, it is all considered plagiarism and should never be attempted.
Relate: 
To be safe, learn to cite sources every time you use information that is not original. Still, large portions of text should be avoided to minimize even the appearance of plagiarism, as that can destroy credibility

First Amendment. 
Define:  The First Amendment to the Constitution actually guarantees five basic rights to all American citizens (religion, speech, press, assembly and petition), but in this case, the First Amendment is used to mean allowing the freedom of speech - that everyone should be allowed to voice their opinion.
Example: In these times of divisive rhetoric, many people want to silence the people they disagree with. College campuses are debating whether or not to allow speakers on campus that may incite protest or worse. A general belief in communication is that the answer to offensive speech is more free speech, not less.
Relate: As ethical listeners, it is our duty and responsibility to hear what others have to say. As ethical speakers, that allows us to logically, respectfully, and intelligently formulate ethical responses to those we disagree with.


Module 4 - Professional Introductions and Conclusions

Retired Astronauts Neil Armstrong, Capt. Jim

Lovell, and Capt. Gene Cernan​ receive a standing ovation during the conclusion

of their discussion during the legends of aerospace tour. [5]​


Primacy Effect. 
Define: The first impression. The first thing we see, hear, or experience has a lasting impression on us.
Example: Meeting someone for the first time, what did you think of them? Did they seem friendly, shy, offensive? As you got to know them better, did that first impression remain the same or change?
Relate: 
When you start your speech, the first thing you do and say will give the audience an immediate impression of what they think of you and your speech. Make it good!

Recency Effect. 
Define: The last impression. The thing we see, hear or experience most recently has a lasting impression on us.
Example: Sometimes people end a conversation rather abruptly, leaving the other person forgetting some of the pleasant conversation they had earlier and dwelling on how the talk ended instead.
Relate: When you end your speech, the last thing you do and say will give the audience a lasting impression of what they thought of you and your speech. Just like the introduction, make it good!

Purpose Statement. 
Define: One short, concise sentence that tells the audience the general and specific purpose of the speech.
Example: For example, “Today I will be informing you (general purpose to inform) about the broadway musical, Hamilton (specifically, about the play)”
Relate: Make the purpose statement so obvious that no one could miss it. Never leave an audience wondering what you are trying to accomplish with your speech.

Preview Statement. 
Define:  The sentence immediately following the Purpose Statement that tells the audience the main points that will be covered in the speech.
Example: If the Informative speech is about the broadway musical Hamilton, the preview statement might be, “First, we’ll look at the life of Alexander Hamilton that inspired this story, then we’ll examine how Lin-Manuel Miranda created the show, and finally I’ll explain the amazing impact this show has had on America.”
Relate: Basically, when you tell the audience your Preview Statement, you are giving them your agenda so they can follow along. They have a better idea of what to listen for and what to look forward to.

​Closure - noun
Define:  A sense of finality that provides a feeling or comfort or satisfaction.
Example: If there are any questions that you raised in the speech, make sure they are all answered by the conclusion. Any stories you need to finish? 
Relate: 
Part of the sense of closure is that feeling that every loose end has been tied up, and the last line had a sense of finality -- when you say your last line, the audience should understand, “this is the end” without you having to tell them. That’s the “clincher” effect.

​​​

Module 5 - Structuring and Outlining Your Speech

"Cicero Denounces Catiline" by Cesare

Maccari. The Romans were one of the first civilizations to develop public

speaking styles and techniques. Their style was heavily influenced by Cicero,

who is depicted as the speaker in the above painting. [6]​


Chronological Organization. 
Define:  Arranged according to the order of time.
Example: Chronological order works well for giving step-by-step instructions for a process, such as a recipe. It is also a helpful way to organize a speech about the history of an event or movement. It could also work quite naturally to inform about someone’s career.
Relate: 
One of the pitfalls of chronological order is to present your material as a series of bullet points rather than dividing your material into clear, separate main points and subpoints. In a speech about Katy Perry, for example, you might be tempted to go year by year through her life, listing 27 different events., Instead, break her story into three distinct periods: her childhood and family influence; her start in the music industry; and the current status of her career.

Temporal Organization. 
Define: Temporal has many meanings outside the world of public speaking, such as earthly rather than spiritual, related to time rather than infinity, or even relating to time rather than space.
Example: In public speaking, however, we use temporal in its simplest meaning -  arranged according to the order of time.
Relate: In other words, in public speaking “temporal” and “chronological” mean the same thing and are interchangeable.

Demonstrative - adj
Define: In this case, this simply means that you are doing a speech to demonstrate, or teach your audience how to do or make something.
Example: Many speech classes have an early “speech to demonstrate” to help students get used to standing in front of an audience -- how to make a favorite family recipe, how to make “slime” with your kid brother, or how to wire up a lamp. 
Relate: Because each of these examples require following step-by-step instructions to make sure the finished product comes out right, chronological order is most appropriate for the demonstration.

Spatial Organization. 
Define: Arranged according to physical location or direction.
Example: A speech about how the state of Florida was devastated by a hurricane season might start by looking at death and property damage in South Florida (Orlando down to Miami and the Keys), then look at North Florida (Orlando up to Jacksonville), and then examine destruction in the Panhandle of the state.
Relate: This is probably one of the least used organizational patterns, but sometimes it is just right - if you were giving an informative speech about the structure of the human ear, it would me very logical to describe the outer ear first, then the middle ear, and finally the inner ear.

Topical Organization. 
Define: Taking the main topic of your speech and breaking it into smaller subtopics. The order in which you present them is based on what you believe will be most comfortable and effective for you and your audience.
Example: 
For example, if you were giving a persuasive speech on ways we could reduce the government budget, you might break that down into three subtopics: welfare, defense, and foreign aid to other countries.
Relate: 
Depending on the makeup of your audience (members of the military? Foreign exchange students? A community center in a low- income neighborhood?) you might choose to alter which of your subtopics you will raise first, second or last.

Categorical Organization. 
Define: This is another word that can mean many things outside of public speaking. For our purposes, it means the same thing as 'topical.'
Example: 
“Today I will show you defense techniques for three different types of attacks - first, if you are being choked; second, if someone is grabbing you from behind; and third, if you are being attacked with a weapon.”
Relate: 
Just like 'topical' means breaking your main topic into subtopics, think of breaking your speech into 'categories.'

Causal Organization. 
Define: Also known as Cause/Effect Organization. Organizing your main points by explaining the causes of something that happened first,, followed by the effects of what happened.
Example: 
“What were the reasons the United States suffered the Great Depression of 1929?” In this speech, you would explain what caused the Depression, followed by what the effects of the Depression were. Another way to think of it would be 'reasons and results.' When you are explaining to your audience why something happened, you would want to use the Causal Organization.
Relate: 
Some speech topics can be organized many different ways, depending on what you are trying to stress most to your audience. For example, a speech about the Civil War could be organized Chronologically, Spatially, or Topically. But a speech about the causes and the effects of the war might be the most interesting.

Problem/Solution Organization. 
Define: As the name implies, this pattern means explaining the problem to be solved first, followed by your recommended solutions.
Example: 
A speech about changing the national health care system could be organized by explaining the problems with the current system, followed by which solution you would support to fix the problems.
Relate: 
Remember that 'Problem/Solution' is the only major organizational pattern that is only used for persuasive speeches. Since you are describing something that needs to be fixed, then trying to convince us of how to fix it, by nature it is persuasion speech.

Transition - noun. 
Define: A word or phrase that leads your audience out of one main point of your speech and into the next.
Example: 
“Now that you understand the early career of Lin-Manuel Miranda, let’s look at what led him to write ‘Hamilton.’” “The third main reason way that we can address climate change…”
Relate: Although your speech may look very well organized on paper, you must include strong transitions to both connect and separate the main points. Without transitions, the main points can all blend together so the speech doesn’t sound as well organized as it looks in writing.

Prioritize. 
Define: This means to decide which of your points in the speech are most important and which might be left out because they are less important. It also includes determining which points should be made first rather than last.
Example: 
In a speech on global warming, you might want to spend more time on the use of fossil fuels to create electricity, the need for more energy efficient transportation, or increasing the use of renewable energy sources before you address the problem of methane gases being produced by cows. Although it is a real issue that could be entertaining for the audience, it’s not as important as the other topics.
Relate: 
While writing speeches 'from the inside out,' prioritizing helps you reduce the information in your speech to a manageable level. This will make sure you present your most important information or your strongest arguments to make your speech as effective as possible.

Module 6 - Listening Skills

'His Master's Voice'​ [7]​


Hearing vs. Listening. 
Define: Sounds vibrating from the eardrum; hearing is a physiological process. Listening requires thinking and reasoning; it requires context, interpretation and meaning - much more than simple hearing.
Example: "I heard a loud bang" (so far just an undetermined noise) vs. "It sounded like a gunshot" (now I’ve compared that sound to other possible sounds - not a door that slammed shut, not a car backfiring) and interpreted it as gunfire.
Relate:​ Listening is a critical skill as an audience member during a presentation in order to understand the speaker’s message and meaning.

External Noise​. 
Define: Distraction from the listening environment that is not from the sender or receiver of the message - the noise going on around you.
Example: 
People yelling outside your lecture hall window; a car alarm in the street.
Relate:
​ While often outside of our control, external noise makes it harder for you to correctly decipher an intended message.

Physiological Noise. 
Define: Biofeedback from your body.
Example: 
A headache, tiredness, hunger pains.
Relate:
​ Your body’s responses and needs can make it difficult to pay attention and truly listen to a message. Sometimes when you’re hungry, that’s all you can think about.

Psychological Noise. 
Define: Internal preoccupations that affect your mind’s ability to correctly interpret messages.
Example: 
Daydreaming, planning, or mentally rehashing an earlier argument in your head (now with all the snappy comebacks you didn’t have earlier!)
Relate:
​ Anything that draws mental attention away from a sender or speaker can affect how well you received a message. It could be preconceived notions, prejudices, or simple inattentiveness.

Context - noun. 
Define: The circumstances in which an event occurs. 
Example: "
My friend isn’t answering my calls and since we had an argument earlier, so I assume he’s still upset with me." If an earlier argument hadn’t occurred, an unanswered phone could mean anything. The earlier interaction puts the unanswered phone into a context that makes sense to you. 
Relate:
​ You have to take into account the context of pretty much everything while communicating. Students falling asleep while you speak could mean you’re boring them, or, it might be the 8 a.m. class time...

Feedback - noun. 
Define: Verbal and nonverbal confirmation to the sender or speaker that you have received the message.
Example: 
You could say, “I agree” or you could simply nod your head. Both let the speaker know you heard and understood them.
Relate:
​ As a speaker, the most common form of feedback you’ll receive is nonverbal. Confused faces? Nodding heads? Are they receiving your message and do they understand?

Informational Listening. 
Define: When your goal is to gain simple information from a message.
Example: 
Pretty much every lecture you’ve ever been in because you need to pass the exam or learn the skill being taught.
Relate:
​ Just about any speech will require informational listening if you truly want to understand the information being shared.

Critical Listening. 
Define: When your goal is to evaluate a message for correctness, trustworthiness, whatever you need to make a decision about what you’re hearing.
Example: 
Listening to a debate or a persuasive speech presentation in order to determine the validity of the speaker’s message. 
Relate:
There is a necessity for speeches, important decisions, or truly understanding any message that requires evaluation.

Socially-Oriented Listening. 
Define: When your goal is to simply enjoy a message or to be entertained.
Example: 
A gathering of friends, someone telling a funny story.
Relate:
​ Special occasion speeches allow you to simply enjoy the message rather than critique it.

Message Overload. 
Define: So many details or examples that your brain feels overwhelmed with information.
Example: 
Trying to remember every historical date that might be on your history final exam.
Relate:
​ Message overload can occur in almost any speech. As much as you may want to remember everything you heard, sometimes it’s just impossible. Our brains can only take in so much.

Active Listening. 
Define: Rather than passively allowing words to come and go, be mindful as you listen to a message.
Example: 
When you’re introduced to several new people at once, you really have to focus (and do some active listening) in order to remember their names.
Relate:
​ Connecting what you already know about a topic with new facts you’re learning during someone’s speech is active listening at its best.

Internal Preview. 
Define: An overview at the beginning of a main point of what lies ahead.
Example: "
Now that you know some of the frustrations I feel about walking texters, let’s look at some of the benefits created by banning texting and walking on campus..."
Relate:
​ A mini introduction of each main point creates interest and signals to the listener what they should be listening for.

Internal Summary. 
Define: A brief recap at the end of a main point.
Example: "
You should now have a better understanding of the two leagues in Major League football - the American League and the National League. So let’s move on to my next point."
Relate:
You should have an easy-to-understand rundown of the important details from your last point before you transition to new information and ideas.

​​

Module 7 - Audience Analysis and Adaptation

The audience at the first inauguration of

President Barack Obama, ​January 20th, 2009. The inauguration set a record

attendance for any event held in Washington D.C., with an estimated attendance

of 1.8 million people. [8]​


Audience-Centered. 
Define: Appealing to the audience’s perceptions, needs, and expectations.
Example: 
A professor who tailors their lecture to include the interests and experiences of their students is a great example of an audience-centered presentation.
Relate:
​ Remember, the audience is always the focus. Without them, there’d be no reason to speak.

Audience Analysis​​. 
Define: Carefully considering the interests, attitudes, values, beliefs, and experiences of your audience.
Example: 
Delivering a presentation to a group of 10-year-old boys scouts would definitely require you to be audience-centered. You’d need to consider everything from the words you chose (so they could understand) to the examples you used (ones they’d relate to.)
Relate:
​ You’ll always want to take into account the age and education level (among other things) for every audience you speak to.

Audience Adaption​​​. 
Define: Process of creating and modifying your speech content so that it correlates to your audience’s interests, attitudes, and experiences.
Example: 
If you were invited to speak to a group of boy scouts about first aid, would you choose to discuss how to use a defibrillator or the basics of first aid such as bandaging a wound, calling for help, and keeping the person calm?
Relate:
​ You want to choose your topic, your examples, and your words based on the audience. What would they relate to? What are their interests?

Observational Analysis​​​. 
Define: The easiest way to figure out your audience - watch and listen.
Example: 
You already do this in your classes without much of an actual thought process. A quick glance tells you how many men/women in the group, how many college-aged vs. older students, etc. Talking with a few of those students let’s you know which team they root for, who they voted for, or what major they’re pursuing. 
Relate:
​ Knowing some basics about your audience is so important. The more you know, the better you are at knowing what makes them tick, or what they’ll respond to or ignore. You can then tailor your speech accordingly for maximum impact.

Questionnaire/Survey - noun​​​. 
Define: A series of questions that ask about the participant’s attitudes, behaviors, impressions of a subject, a person, or a product.
Example: 
Have you ever completed an evaluation of an instructor at the end of a course? Then, you’ve completed a survey. You answered questions about what you believe your professor did well and where they could improve.
Relate:
​ Surveys can be hit or miss. A good survey asks good questions and builds in as much validity as possible. But, survey results depend on the people who answer them. What if they lied or didn’t understand a question? Worse yet, what if they simply picked random answers just to be done with it?

Focus Group​​​. 
Define: A small group of individuals who usually represent a particular demographic, social, or cultural background who come together to discuss a particular topic or product and report back their reactions and opinions.
Example: 
Have you ever seen any of those TV ads that show a group of people being introduced to a new vehicle in order to gain their feedback? Of course, the commercials only show the participants being awed by the product, but in reality, that company has conducted multiple focus groups before this commercial was shot to determine what people want - and are willing to pay for -  in a new vehicle.
Relate:
​ You won’t be asked to create focus groups in your speech class. Who’s got time for that? But you could try asking a few of your friends, classmates, or family members what they think of your topic, how they feel about your subject matter, or what they’d most want to know about the topic you’ve chosen and the information you’ll share.

Demographics - noun​​​. 
Define: Studying a population or a subgroup through the collection of personal data from individuals such as race, age, gender, religion, culture, education levels, and socio-economic levels. 
Example: 
Every 10 years, the U.S Census gathers this information from every household. The data they collect could be used to project how many new schools will be needed in the next few years or what government agencies will need more or less funding.
Relate:
​ The more you know about people in general - and your audience specifically - the better you’ll be able to connect to your audience.

​​​Demographic Analysis.
Define: Using demographical data to analyze an audience or group.
Example: 
If you were asked to discuss medicare with a group of senior citizens or a group of teenagers, which group would you pick? Knowing that age is one piece of the demographic background of an audience, you’d want to match this topic with the group that would have an interest in this topic. Hint: It wouldn’t be the teenagers. :-)
Relate: 
You can gather some demographic information about your audience using observational analysis. Simply getting to know your classmates better can provide you with some of these pieces of information. You may also want to check fact-finding websites for broader data on a particular group or topic. 

Frame of Reference.
Define: The context in which an audience can relate to, recall, or understand your topic, your examples, or your experiences.
Example: 
Let’s say you’re looking for an attention-getter to begin a speech about Robin Williams’ life. Would you ask your classmates who was the star of Mork and Mindy (one of Williams’ very first roles that most college-aged students have never seen or heard of) or would you reference his role as Teddy Roosevelt in the Night at the Museum films? Odds are your classmates will have seen the later movies and can understand the newer reference.
Relate: 
Again, knowing the demographics of your audience can help you with their frame of reference. Unless you’ve experienced the same events or grew up in the same time frame, your frame of reference will be different. Referencing something your audience can’t relate to is wasted effort.

Culture - noun.
Define: A shared set of values, beliefs, customs, traditions, and norms.
Example: 
A speech about your Christmas traditions may not resonate with students who do not celebrate that holiday due to religious or cultural differences - perhaps those students who celebrate Hanukkah or Kwanza would appreciate a discussion of more broad or universal traditions. 
Relate: 
It’s easy to assume that everyone shares the same cultural experiences or customs. But it’s also naive. Always, always assume that your audience is multicultural and consider every aspect of your speech with that in mind. 

Psychological Analysis (Psychographics - noun).
Define: Examining an audience’s attitudes, opinions, beliefs, and values in order to understand how they think, behave or react.
Example: 
In your speech about your belief that vaccinating children is essential to prevent disease, it would be important to recognize some audience members may disagree with you. Validate your audience’s right to feel differently than you do, then move on and deliver your speech. 
Relate: 
Taking the time to figure out your audience’s opinions and beliefs is the first step in understanding why they believe the way they do. 

Situational Analysis.
Define: Considering the audience size, room size, and the physical setting of the speech as well as the occasion for the speech.
Example: 
If you know in advance that you’ll be speaking on a stage in an auditorium holding 500 people, you’ll also know that means you’ll be using a microphone and your visuals will most likely need to be projected so everyone can see them.
Relate: 
Luckily, you will most likely speak in the same classroom every time you deliver a speech for this class. But if you are ever asked to speak outside of a classroom setting, ask questions to determine everything you can about the room and the audience in advance. Knowing as much as you can ahead of time allows you to plan accordingly.

Content Adaptation.
Define: Adjusting the content of your speech in consideration of the audience’s relevant experiences to the speech material.
Example: 
Let’s say you wanted to deliver a speech about human trafficking and how everyday citizens could help stop the practice simply by increasing their situational awareness. But you worry that most students are probably thinking 'How on earth would I recognize something like that was happening? And should I trust my instincts and say something? What if I were wrong?' Connecting the topic to something they can relate to helps. What if you asked students if any of them had ever had a gut feeling that something was wrong? Perhaps they had a friend dating someone that they just didn’t trust, for no valid reason they could pinpoint, but they cared enough about their friend to say something anyway. Leading with that example could help your audience realize that they do use situational awareness already. You just want them to expand it a bit.
Relate: 
You may need to adapt the content to fit your audience in many speeches. This is why it’s so important to really know your audience. Who they are and what do they believe? What have they experienced? Knowing them allows you to tailor your topic and message to that audience.



Module 8 - Research and Credible Evidence



Snowballing - verb​​​. 
Define: Once you find a good reference resource, check the sources that author used to identify additional relevant sources.
Example: 
You found a great book on the principles of investing that you will cite when you give your upcoming speech. Since this source is so helpful, check and see what sources the book author used to gather their facts. That will most likely lead you to additional sources to help you in your research.
Relate:
​​​ A well-researched article or book should lead you to other sources that you can use. It’ll speed the research process for you. Rather than going in blind, you already have a source you trust that could lead you to other credible sources. But don’t cheat! Really go and look up those other sources and read them; don’t just take the paraphrasing or quotes from the original article and claim you did more research than you really did!

Academic/Scholarly Journal​​​. 
Define: Articles written by experts in a particular field that are published and reviewed for accuracy.
Example: 
You’re presenting a speech on the dangers of diabetes, so you know you need medical sources. Looking for articles in the Journal of American Medical Association is a smart choice. You’ll be able to find multiple articles written by doctors and researchers to support your claims.
Relate:
​​​ ​ Because journal articles are written by experts and then critiqued by experts in the same field, you can be sure the articles offer complete, sound data. Audiences are typically impressed by research from these kinds of articles because they recognize that they are a highly credible source.

Periodical​ - noun
Define: Any type of publication that is published periodically.
Example: 
For instance, your PC Gamer or Vanity Fair magazine is delivered  to you every month (or accessible online each month at a certain time).
Relate:​​​ Like the name suggests, periodicals are published periodically - weekly, monthly, quarterly, etc. This is what most people think of when they think of a magazine subscription. While these are not the same scholarly quality you’d expect from a journal, you may still find useful information in some of them depending on your topic - what’s the latest on women’s health, decorating for the holidays or movie reviews?

Online Databases​​​​. 
Define: Online websites that have compiled data typically used for general research.
Example: 
Gale Virtual Reference Library, Oxford Reference Online Premium, LexisNexis Academic
Relate:​​​ Databases can be a researcher’s best friend as these sites have collected and compiled immense amounts of data for you, making it easy to find information on just about any given topic. On the downside, many of these databases require you to pay for access - an issue for most starving college students. Make sure to check with your school/librarian before you start your search. Many schools provide free database access for students.

Expert​​​​ - noun. 
Define: An expert source is someone who is considered highly credible in their field due to extensive experience, years of study, or an advanced degree or position.
Example: 
For example in a speech about diabetes, your audience will expect to hear that you have information from experts. In this case, a doctor or researcher who has extensively studied or treated numerous patients with this disease.
Relate:
​​​ Experts impress us. We typically trust them. If your topic is dealing with a subject that requires more than the average person would know, you’ll need to quote an expert.

​​​Layperson - noun​​​. 
Define: A regular person who has a unique experience or perspective to share that will validate or help explain your topic.
Example: 
Your Aunt Gina is a breast cancer survivor. She’s gone through a lengthy illness and learned a lot about cancer, treatments, and medications in the process. She’s not an expert - she’s not a doctor or researcher - but she could still provide an insider’s view of the disease. 
Relate:
​​​ It can be very effective to combine a layperson’s knowledge with your expert sources in a speech. For one, your audience can relate to a layperson. They represent a real human being, and they help to balance your data, facts, and statistics by humanizing your topic.

​​​Open-ended Interview Questions. 
Define: These questions allow the interviewee to elaborate on the topic; to add any details they feel are pertinent or helpful.
Example: "
Tell me about your time in the Australian outback. What happened while you were there?" This kind of question allows the person being interviewed to tell a story, to share multiple details about a trip or an adventure.
Relate:
​​​ Interviews can be an effective means of gathering information from a source. You want the person you’re interviewing to share as much as possible, to be open and vocal. The more they share, the more information you’ll have to use in your speech. It’s always better to have too much than too little. Most people don’t have the time - or inclination - to grant you a second interview simply because you failed to ask good questions the first time.

Closed-ended Interview Questions​​​. 
Define: These questions limit the response the interviewee would probably give such as a question that requires a yes or no answer.
Example: "
I understand you were in the Australian outback last year?" What answer do you expect from this question? "Yes, I was." or "No, it was the year before." Either way, you’re getting very little information. 
Relate:
​​​ If you’re going to go to the trouble to interview someone, you want the best and most complete information you can get from them. Why would you want to stifle their answers by having them answer yes or no? Unless you have a reason to limit the answer or simply want confirmation of a fact, closed-ended questions are a bad idea.

Source Authority​​​. 
Define: A source with extensive knowledge, experience, academic credentials and/or specialized training can be considered an authority.
Example: "
Dr. Karen Evans, a board-certified pediatrician for the last 25 years, says…" This source is a medical doctor with extensive training AND she’s been practicing medicine for the last 25 years. She’s definitely an authority.
Relate:​​​ Sources with authority are typically your experts. These sources can be trusted to have valid information because they have years of training or experience to back them up.

Source Objectivity​​​​. 
Define: Objective sources provide balanced information and remain neutral on the topic at hand. They do not attempt to influence the reader’s or listener’s thoughts or opinions on the subject.
Example: "
Tom Watson, president of the local chapter of the NRA, says all households in the U.S. should have two or more firearms in the home…" It shouldn’t come as any surprise to hear that a source who believes strongly enough in the NRA to hold an office in the organization might have a bias on the topic of gun ownership. That’s not to say that he couldn’t be a valid source in the right context. If you wanted someone who was familiar with guns and how to operate them, Tom Watson could be your authority. It depends on his purpose in your speech.
Relate:​​​ Sources are often biased - they favor one group or side over another. Using a biased source causes you to lose credibility. Ask yourself if the source might have a hidden agenda or a background that might influence how they feel about the topic. Is the language being used encouraging one viewpoint over another?

​​Source Currency/Recency.
Define: How recent or up to date your information or data is.
Example: "
In Shane McCall’s book, written in 1918, he shares what life was like in Boston at the time…" 1918 doesn’t sound recent, does it? But does it matter? If the source is being used to explain what life was like during that timeframe, it’s a valid source. However, you wouldn’t use a map from 1918 to give a speech on the best places to eat in Boston today.
Relate: Not every speech requires all current sources. A speech about the history of cancer medications would naturally include older sources as you’re providing chronological data. However, a speech about the latest cancer treatments would need the most current data you could find.

Verbal Citation.
Define: Citing your sources as your information is presented to the audience.
Example: "
In her book, The Hunger Games, Suzanne Collins explores the boundaries between utopia and despair…" (Your audience knows the title of the book and the author) "John Doe writes in the Spring 2013 issue of The Journal of Communication…" (Your audience knows the author, the publication date, and the name of the journal).
Relate: You’ve got a great bibliography or works cited page to turn in to your professor after your speech, but your audience will never see that document. They’ll only know of your sources if you tell them during your presentation. You need to identify your sources during your speech as you use the information you’ve collected. Your audience won’t be impressed by numbers pulled from thin air. If you have a percentage to share, they’ll want to know where that number came from. Always give credit to your sources in your speech. It makes you credible and trustworthy.


Module 9 - Writing Informative Speeches

A lithograph of the Royal Institution Christmas

Lecture from 1856 hosted by chemist Michael Faraday. Created by Faraday, this

famous lecture series has been held each year since 1825, and still goes on in

London today. Each year, a new speech is given to present a particular

scientific concept to the general public in an informative manner. [9]​


Topical Organizational Pattern.
Define: Organizing your speech by subtopics.
Example: 
If you were going to discuss choosing the best dog for a family, you might decide to break that topic into smaller subgroups like size, breeds, and temperament.
Relate: 
Organizing a speech topically is probably the easiest pattern to use. It’s simply subsets of the larger topic.

Chronological Organizational Pattern.
Define: Organizing your speech according to a time sequence (typically from earliest to latest).
Example: 
A chronological pattern might logically be used to discuss a person’s life from the beginning to the present (or to the end).
Relate: 
Remember that most listeners expect you to adhere to a natural timeline if you are discussing a topic chronologically. They’d naturally expect for you to begin at the beginning and then move forward in time, from childhood to death, for instance.

Spatial Organizational Pattern.
Define: Arranges ideas according to location or geography.
Example: 
Let’s say you want to share with us your trip across country from Boston to Oregon. You could organize the speech spatially in order to explain your route from east to west - giving us a “map” of your journey with stops along the way.
Relate: 
Spatial organization works best in speeches about geography or location. Think maps, floor plans, how the planets are arranged in space.

Concept Speech.
Define: This type of speech deals with an intangible topic such as a belief, a theory, or a principle.
Example: 
A speech on democracy is a good example. You can’t actually show us “democracy,” but you can explain and define it for us and give us examples of democracy so that we understand the concept and recognize it when we see it.
Relate: 
Concept speeches can be challenging to describe effectively, especially if the concept is not well known to your audience. Paint a mental picture for us so we would recognize it if we saw it or encountered it.

Process Speech.
Define: A speech that explains how to do something, how a process works, or how something is made.
Example: 
A speech that shows us how to make lasagna would be a great example of a process speech. Also a tasty one!
Relate: 
Most demonstration speeches describe a process - how to make a meal, how to wrap a present, how to make beer. Of course, you’re also arranging the speech chronologically as well since we need step-by-step directions from start to finish.

Kinesthetic Learning Style.
Define: This type of learner (or listener) retains information best if they have hands-on experience.
Example: 
Kinesthetic learners in your audience would more readily follow your speech on how to make an origami swan if you gave them paper and asked them to complete the folds with you.
Relate: 
Because these types of learners/listeners like to actually use their hands, speeches that involve them in a demonstration or process are best. 

Auditory Learning Style.
Define: This type of learner (or listener) retains information best by following what you say during the speech.
Example: 
An auditory learner in your audience doesn’t need to make the origami swan in class to understand the process. They’d be able to replicate the swan at home simply because they heard your directions during your speech.
Relate: 
That’s why it’s critical that you use clear, precise language when you speak. Your auditory learners are listening to every word you say in order to understand your presentation.

Visual Learning Style.
Define: This type of learner (or listener) retains information best by seeing.
Example: 
A visual learner would benefit from watching you make the origami swan or by seeing a step-by-step diagram. Just seeing the steps would be enough for them to understand how to replicate the swan. 
Relate: 
This is why visual aids can be beneficial in your speech. Visual learners may not retain all the information simply by hearing your presentation, but they’ll remember most of it if you give them something to look at.

Example - noun.
Define: People or things that are representative of a group or type.
Example: "
Tony Robbins is an example of a motivational speaker."
Relate: 
Examples can help to paint a picture for the listener by referring them to one thing, one place, or one person who represents your topic or point.

Illustration - noun.
Define: More detailed than examples, illustrations give the audience a more complete understanding or 'picture' of the topic.
Example: "
Motivational speaker Tony Robbins often encourages people to walk across hot coals to gain inner confidence."
Relate: 
We used Tony Robbins as an example earlier, simply identifying him as one motivational speaker among many. Here we’re providing more details about how Robbins motivates his followers. That’s the difference between an example and an illustration.

Analogy- noun.
Define: A comparison of two things that are similar in some way.
Example: 
Comparing positive thinking to weight lifting is an analogy that helps your listener to see that positive thinking is 'exercise' for the brain just as weight lifting is exercise for the body.
Relate: 
Analogies can be especially helpful if your speech discusses an abstract idea by giving your listener something they already understand to compare it to.

Personalize - verb.
Define: The act of humanizing a topic by sharing personal information or examples.
Example: In a speech discussing Multiple Sclerosis, telling your audience about your mother’s struggle with the disease will personalize the topic and make the topic more than an abstract disease that happens to others.
Relate:​ Rather than simply reciting a lot of statistics and data (which you do also need), put a human face to the topic. Share a personal story or example. Personalization makes us care.

Module 10 - Writing Persuasive Speeches

Former President Dwight D. Eisenhower (who was

a general at the time) announced the D-Day Landings at Normandy in one of

WWII's most famous speeches. "Great battles lie ahead. I call upon all who

love freedom to stand with us. Keep your faith staunch - our arms are resolute

- together we shall achieve victory.” [10]​


Advocate - noun.
Define: One who pleads or defends the cause of another.
Example: 
Let’s say a new group wants to form on campus, but because they might be considered controversial, some students don’t want the university to allow the group to meet. But, you, on the other hand, feel that all students have the right to create a group and you aren’t shy about letting everyone around you know of your feelings on the topic. You’re advocating for that group. You’re defending their right to form and meet.
Relate:
​ As a speaker, especially a persuasive speaker, you will often choose to advocate for a particular cause. Convincing your audience to support a worthy cause or to take action is the heart of persuasion.

​​Persuasion - noun.
Define: To move an audience towards a specific belief, value or behavior.
Example: 
You’re giving a persuasive speech to convince your classmates that terminally ill individuals should be able to choose physician-assisted suicide if they wish. This will require you to convince those in your audience who feel that life is sacred to extend that value system to include the belief that allowing someone to die with dignity might also be seen as sacred. 
Relate:
​ We mostly think of persuasion as changing someone’s mind. But keep in mind that some people in your audience will already agree with you. You don’t want to change their minds; they’re already with you. But you can reinforce their beliefs by providing additional information that gives them more data, more reasons to believe as they do.

Deception - noun.
Define: Attempting to persuade an audience using information the speaker knows to be untrue.
Example: 
You’re researching your speech and suddenly you realize that your strongest piece of evidence has been disproven by credible research. If you choose to use that information - despite knowing that it is inaccurate and misleading - you’re knowingly deceiving your audience. It’s not ethical - and it’s not persuasion.
Relate: 
The old saying, 'by any means necessary,' is not an ethical goal of persuasion. If all you care about is convincing your audience to act or believe as you do, you’re using deceit - not persuasion.

Coercion - noun.
Define: The use of physical or moral force to compel a person to do (or not do) something; depriving someone of free will.
Example: 
Thankfully, none of us is likely to sit in a classroom where the speaker has the freedom to coerce us into agreeing or acting as they see fit. But a speech given by any dictator is, in reality, a form of coercion. I would imagine anyone listening to a speech by North Korean dictator, Kim Jong-un, understands that their livelihood - even their literal life - depends upon them clapping, smiling, and doing whatever has been 'suggested' in the speech. 
Relate: 
Persuasion is never about forcing others to do as you ask, to believe as you believe. Smart individuals are persuaded by facts, logic, and sound arguments - not threats.

Goals of Persuasion.
Define: To reinforce (to reaffirm for the audience that what they already believe is correct and to strengthen or increase the degree of agreement with the speaker). To convert (to convince the audience to adopt your position and change their current opinion or belief). To actuate (to ask the audience to take some form of action, to do something). 
Example: 
In a speech about the importance of voting, you may ask how many audience members are registered to vote? For those who raise their hands, you’re likely to give positive feedback. “Awesome, you guys already know how important voting is.” For those who don’t raise their hands, you might then tell them that your speech today will hopefully convince them that registering to vote is the first step towards becoming a part of the democratic process and that their opinion matters. You’ll end by passing out voter registration forms and asking those who are not registered to complete them and drop them off at designated locations.
Relate: 
While most of our focus in a persuasive speech is convincing those who disagree with us to 'see the light,' you must also be able to gauge who needs convincing, who probably already believes as you do, and what it will take to push your listeners to take appropriate action.

Audience Dispositions (mindsets).
Define: Audiences can be oppositional (against), favorable (for), or middle-of-the-road (neutral).
Example: Attempting to convince a group of University of Florida Gator fans that the Georgia Bulldogs are the best team in the NCAA. I can tell you right now, it won’t ever happen. That’s a fierce rivalry! vs. Speaking to a group of college students about the need for free college tuition. That’s a no-brainer. vs. Speaking to undecided voters during a political campaign. They haven’t made up their minds yet, so they could go either way.
Relate: 
In many ways, the middle-of-the-road folk are your best audience members. They haven’t already decided for or against, so they’re still open to what you have to say.

Apathetic Audience.
Define: An audience that doesn’t really care about your topic; they may feel ”it doesn’t apply” to them.
Example: 
If the goal of your speech is to convince college students to phone or write their congressman to stop the medicare budget from being cut, I don’t envy you. College students worry about plenty of things (tuition, exams, roommates, relationships) but I can almost guarantee you that they couldn’t care less about a program that is almost entirely for senior citizens. They may eventually care - in, oh, about 40 years, but probably not today.
Relate: 
This type of audience can be the 'kiss of death' for a speaker. Apathy is hard to overcome. You will need to convince this audience that the topic does apply to them - or to someone they care about. Maybe they care a lot about their grandparents, so fighting to keep medicare for them is important. Or that they may not care now, but if they don’t act now, things will only get worse. What if in 40 years, medicare no longer exists? It will matter to them then.

Mixed Audience.
Define: An audience comprised of individuals whose opinions, motivations, and knowledge on a topic are varied and diverse. 
Example:
Think of a group comprised of Democrats, Republicans, Independents, and those with no party affiliation. Such a mixed group makes persuasion more difficult. Opinions, beliefs, and loyalties are already formed for many in that audience.
Relate: 
As the name implies, mixed audiences are a 'hodgepodge' of individuals. No matter what they believe or want, your best bet is to focus on finding common ground and establishing your credibility. Whether they ultimately agree or not, they will respect your point of view and your informed effort.

Uninformed Audience.
Define: An audience comprised of individuals who have not had much exposure to a topic.
Example: 
Let’s say you’re speaking to a group of senior citizens about the need for upgraded home security measures using the latest technologies. Many of them will know little about these new advances in technology. However, they may be surprisingly open to your topic if you can show them how they benefit from it.
Relate: 
Uninformed audiences can really be receptive to new information. These listeners typically don’t have any hardened opinions or fierce loyalties as they know very little about the topic. You’re working with a blank slate, and that can work to your advantage. 

Pseudo-Transactional Communication.
Define: The transactional communication model positions that both the sender and receiver interact with messages and responses in the context of their individual and shared experiences. Attempting to recreate this model in a speech setting has limitations as both the speaker and the listener are restricted by the context of public speaking.
Example: 
Your speech on the need for stricter gun laws is being delivered to 20+ individuals who most likely already have some opinion on the topic. Unlike a conversation where you can go back and forth with a friend, each pointing out your opinions and arguments until you reach some middle ground (even if it’s agreeing to disagree while acknowledging that each of you have valid arguments), a speech doesn’t follow the same transactional norms as other types of communication. Because of this, it’s difficult to figure out where you stand with the audience and whether you might come to agreement if you could interact more directly.
Relate: 
While all communication, in general, is transactional - a give and take between the sender and receiver, keep in mind that a persuasive speech offers only limited interaction between you and your audience. You, as the speaker, are limited to your public message, and your audience is only able to share their response to your ideas through nonverbal feedback.

Ethos - noun.
Define: A speaker’s credibility or believability. 
Example: 
In your speech on climate change, you acknowledge your heartfelt concern for the environment, sharing your efforts to do your part by gardening, composting and biking to work. Then you share valid data from experts in the field. Your audience should see you as quite credible. You share logical data in your speech to make your point, but you will also likely come across as truly concerned, personally involved, and caring.
Relate: 
Audiences determine your credibility by what they know of your personal character, your knowledge and expertise on the subject, and sometimes, even on your likability as a person. 

Pathos - noun.
Define: The use of emotion to persuade an audience.
Example: 
In your speech on budget cuts in the community, you use fear to appeal to the audience. You discuss how cutting the budget means fewer police officers or fire personnel. You question what would happen if those public officials are not around to help when we need them. You rely upon our fear of what might happen to persuade us that the proposed budget cuts will impact us personally.
Relate: 
Emotion is a powerful thing. When we feel deeply, we are drawn in. Using emotions such as fear, joy, guilt, or anger to help persuade your audience to care can be quite effective.

Logos - noun.
Define: The use of logic to persuade an audience.
Example: 
For example, when giving a speech about community budget cuts, your focus is on the logical reasons why we may want to prevent them. You provide statistics that link safer communities with higher numbers of law enforcement. You use an example of a nearby community that lost two major historical buildings in the last year due to reduced resources in the fire department. Your statistics and real examples are solid and persuasive.
Relate: 
By using logos in your persuasive speech, you’re using facts and sound evidence to appeal to us and persuade us to do as you ask.

Cognitive Dissonance.
Define: Psychological distress or internal conflict resulting from inconsistencies in thoughts, beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors.
Example: 
Your friend thinks of himself as a physical fitness buff. He works out every day, lifts weights, and watches what he eats. But he also smokes. You can’t understand how your friend who is so focused on a healthy lifestyle in most areas of his life can’t see how smoking is the ultimate inconsistency. There is obviously some disconnect there. Perhaps your friend finds the thought of quitting so overwhelming that he justifies that all the other healthy lifestyle choices he makes offset that one unhealthy habit. Calling your friend out on the subject should force him to make a change or to at least acknowledge that he has been fooling himself. 
Relate: 
It is helpful as you prepare your speech to understand and accept that some of the information you’ll share might clash with your listener’s current opinions and beliefs. Many will reject your new information outright. Others will experience discomfort because it forces them to acknowledge their inconsistencies. For those who can acknowledge the inconsistencies, you may help move them towards acceptance of the new information ...eventually.

Cognitive Consistency.
Define: The concept that individuals have a preference for their own thoughts, beliefs, opinions and attitudes and consistently work to avoid internal contradictions.
Example: 
Your best friend, Jasmine, has a new roommate that you didn’t really like when you first met her. But Jasmine really likes her new roommate; she’s always talking favorably about her, telling you how great she is. Jasmine always seems to read people correctly and you value her opinion. You suddenly find yourself liking the new roommate as well. Because you like Jasmine and respect her opinion, it is psychologically consistent that you also like and respect the new roommate. If you don’t, you then have to wonder why you like Jasmine so much if she can be friends with someone that you dislike. That makes you uncomfortable, so it’s easier for you internally to like both. Conflict resolved.
Relate: 
How does cognitive consistency work for you in a speech? If you can show your audience that your new information is already consistent with their current beliefs and opinions, they will readily accept your new data and be easily persuaded to do as you ask.

One-sided Persuasion.
Define: A persuasive strategy or speech structure that presents only one perspective on an issue.
Example: 
Your speech against euthanasia will focus solely on all the reasons why it is unwise to allow states to create laws allowing it. You won’t share the opposition’s data or their experts’ opinions. You are driving home your point and you have no desire to 'muddy the water' with other opinions or beliefs.
Relate: 
One-sided persuasion means that every piece of evidence and every argument you make supports only the position you are advocating. The mindset here is that I’m right and all the others are wrong. This approach is often used by speakers, but be careful that your very focused approach does not become unethical; you don’t want to try to hide or alter information to make your point.

Two-sided Persuasion.
Define: A persuasive strategy or speech structure that presents arguments on both sides of an issue.
Example: 
In that same speech on euthanasia, you decide to share both sides of the argument. You give examples and share data from those who support it. But you are careful to point out the flaws in each of their arguments. By doing so, you come across as credible and you invalidate the other side’s points.
Relate: 
A two-sided approach acknowledges to your audience that there are valid arguments against your position. But you’re not just sharing the 'other side’s' arguments and leaving it up to your audience to decide. You’re addressing their arguments and pointing out in your speech why their arguments aren’t as good as yours.

Types of Claims.
Define: Claim of Fact (an argument that proposes that something is or is not true). - Claim of Value (an argument that proposes that something is good or bad, fair or unfair, right or wrong). - Claim of Policy (an argument that something should be done, offering rules, regulations or policies that can be used to affect change).
Example: 
Wednesday follows Tuesday, Columbus discovered America, and the Earth is round (...or flat). These are simplistic examples, but they can be easily verified as true or false. - Is the death penalty right or wrong? Is wealth good or bad? It depends on who you ask. If your audience agrees with you that something needs to be done to save our national parks, they’ll gladly hear your suggestions for solutions. They may even be persuaded to help make that happen by paying higher taxes, protesting, etc.
Relate: 
Claims of fact simply require evidence to back them up; research to prove that something is or is not. These claims are less clear cut because they are subjective, and individuals will vary in what they believe. When using a claim of value, you need to clearly explain your criteria for good, bad, better, or worse since we may view each of those qualifiers from our own subjective point of view. - In order for a claim of policy to be effective, the audience needs to believe that some adjustment of the current situation is needed.

Problem-Solution Speech.
Define: A speech that demonstrates that a problem exists and proposes a solution to that problem.
Example: 
America’s education system is flawed and your solution to fix it is modeling our schools after the Denmark model.
Relate: 
Choosing the solution with the most benefits and the least amount of consequences is your wisest choice. You’ll get more of your audience onboard with your solution that way.

Problem-Solution-Feasibility.
Define: A problem-solution speech that pays special attention to the feasibility of the suggested solution.
Example: 
Using the example of America’s flawed education system, your speech suggests that the solution is to use Denmark as the model for our schools. But now you’ll want to discuss why this is feasible. Can we easily translate their approach to the U.S.? Are our systems similar enough that parents, educators, and students would accept the change? Will this solution require little additional funding?
Relate: 
While this is still a problem-solution speech, you’ll want to spend extra energies demonstrating why this solution is achievable and beneficial.

Cause-Effect-Solution.
Define: A speech that discusses the source of a problem (cause) and the negative consequences (effect) then provides a solution.
Example: 
Cause of ozone depletion: excessive factory and car emissions into our air. Effect: damaged ozone layer, climate change. Solution: Laws limiting emissions, modifications to our vehicles’ exhaust systems, etc.
Relate: By spending extra time focusing on the cause and clearly explaining how the cause creates the effect, explaining why your solution will be effective is easier for your audience to see.

Monroe's Motivated Sequence.
Define: An organizational speech format for persuasive speeches that follows a five-step process. 
Example: Attention (get our interest; why is this relevant to us?) Need (show us a need that is not being currently met; your problem. - Satisfaction (explaining how to overcome the need; your solution. - Visualization (helping us see how implementing your solution will help). Action (providing the audience with the steps to take to solve the problem).
Relate: Adding in the visualization step helps your audience to 'visualize' how the solution will make a difference or seeing how not adopting your solution will impact us. By painting a mental picture, you 'show' the audience what you see as an end result.

Refutation Pattern.
Define: The negation of an argument, opinion, or theory through contradicting evidence in order to disprove opposing arguments.
Example: 
During a political debate, each politician is given a few moments to answer the same question. While the first speaker answers, you can see their opponent listening and sometimes taking notes. When it’s their time to refute their opponent’s answers, they take each idea or opinion or policy suggested and poke holes in it. Then they offer their better option, idea or plan.
Relate: 
You might most often hear the word, refutation, in a formal debate. This works, though, any time you need to point out the shortcomings of someone else’s argument.

Comparative Advantage.
Define: An organizational speech format that pits two or more ideas against each other in order to demonstrate that one idea is far superior to the other(s).
Example: 
You’ve decided to compare solar energy and nuclear energy. Your speech would explain both types of power to us so we have a basic understanding of each. Then you’d begin your comparison. You might compare the cost, the impact on the environment, and finally, the amount of energy that each would create. At the end of your comparison, it should be clear to your audience which energy source is the better option.
Relate: 
This technique works best if you go point by point, highlighting the differences among your ideas or options. Then prove to us which option is clearly better.

Module 11 -Delivery

Martin Luther King Jr. was a brilliant orator.

Not only did he have an important message, but he delivered it effectively.

[11]​


Credibility - noun.
Define: The audience’s willingness to believe what you say and trust in you.
Example: 
Telling the audience how many years you have been studying martial arts would give you credibility when teaching self-defense techniques.
Relate: 
Credibility can be established through your personal experiences, through the research you have done, but it can also be strengthened (or weakened) by your delivery style.

Manuscript - noun.
Define: Preparing a speech word for word, and presenting it by reading your script exactly was written.
Example: 
Speeches where every word needs to be precise might require a script, such as the presentation of a research project or a major political address that might have international impact.
Relate: 
While a manuscript is usually very carefully written, the delivery is often less effective. Some people sound like they are just reading rather than talking, and the speech content cannot be adjusted for the specific audience.

Memorize - verb.
Define: The memorized speech is the exact same speech that was written as a manuscript; the only difference is that the speaker has practiced so much that they no longer need the script to deliver it.
Example: 
Memorizing an entire speech can be quite impressive if the speaker cites evidence, quotes statistics, finishes at a precise time, all without using any notes at all. 
Relate: 
While the memorized delivery style can win admiration from the audience, it still has the disadvantage that the speaker cannot adjust the speech to adapt to the specific audience -- you are still 'sticking to the script.' Be careful not to sound like you are 'reciting.'

Impromptu - adj.
Define: A speech delivery style with no preparation at all.
Example: 
Imagine enjoying your bagel and coffee at the morning employee meeting, when the boss looks straight at you and says, “Hey, you were here when that customer was so upset last week. C’mon up and tell everybody what happened.” You are about to give an impromptu speech.
Relate: 
Although an impromptu speech does not allow for any preparation, you have the advantage that the audience is aware you are unprepared, so they are not expecting you to be great. Also, you have all the freedom in the world to adapt to the audience naturally and conversationally.

Extemporaneous - adj.
Define: Although the dictionary defines extemporaneous as 'impromptu,' in public speaking it means delivering your speech with limited preparation.
Example: Extemporaneous speeches have research, structure, organization, and even prepared introductions and conclusions. But they have not been turned into a word-for-word script -- they are usually delivered from speaking notes consisting of an outline or keywords or phrases.
Relate: 
This is the delivery style that is the 'hybrid' of all the other styles. It utilizes most of the advantages of manuscript, memorized and impromptu, but eliminates most of the disadvantages. That’s why this delivery style is recommended for most public speaking.

Volume and Projection.
Define: While both words involve making your voice louder, volume can be achieved by raising your voice to the point of shouting. Projection increases your level by a speaking technique that maintains your vocal quality.
Example: 
Proper projection comes from using the chest to increase sound rather than the throat. If you have a sore throat after increasing your loudness, you are not projecting from the chest.
Relate: 
Next time you attend a play, notice how the best actors project their voices - sounding deep and resonant while letting you hear every word, while the less experienced actors sound strained with a higher pitch as they “yell” their lines at you.

Expression Rate.
Define: How quickly you are saying your words. 
Example: 
Some people race through their speech, as if they are just trying to get to the end. Some people feel like they are rushing due to their nervousness and anxiety, but are really speaking at a conversational pace.
Relate: 
An experienced, effective speaker will deliberately vary the rate of speed, speaking faster and slower at times to add to the impact and effectiveness.

Articulation and Pronunciation.
Define: Articulation means properly saying every syllable and letter clearly, without mumbling or slurring, such as “Did you eat an apple?” rather than “Jeet napple?” Pronunciation means saying the words with the right accepted standard sound and stress patterns on syllables and letters.
Example: 
You could say, 'li-berry' clearly with good articulation, but you would be pronouncing it wrong -- the word is pronounced 'li-brary.' 'Feberary' is the wrong pronunciation of “February,” no matter how clearly you articulate the syllables.
Relate: Poor articulation - mumbling or slurring your words - can result in your audience not understanding what you are saying. But a speech about the origins of Halloween that mispronounces “Celtic” (‘kel-tik) or “Samhain” (‘sow-in, with “sow” rhyming with “cow”) makes the audience think you don’t know your information very well.

Ambiguous - adj.
Define: Able to be understood or interpreted in more than one way.
Example: 
For over 500 years, people have been arguing about the ambiguous smile of the Mona Lisa - exactly what does that smile mean?
Relate: 
As speakers, we need to avoid ambiguous words and gestures -- try to make sure the audience understands what you mean without confusion.

Module 12 - Argumentation and Fallacies

The New York Court of Appeal [12]​


Argument - noun.
Define: A set of statements that offers reasons to believe or accept a conclusion.
Example: 
Claiming that the movie, 'King Arthur: Legend of the Sword' was a flop, you might point out that the studio spent $175 million to make the movie, another $100 million in promotion, but the movie only earned $14.7 million in its opening weekend.
Relate: 
In public speaking, an argument does not mean a noisy, angry catfight. It can be a calm, logical way to explain the valid reasoning and evidence to support what you are advocating.

Argumentation - noun.
Define: The process of presenting your arguments while also listening, and responding to, the arguments of others. 
Example: 
While this could be structured in a debate-type format, trying to establish who is right and who is wrong, it can also be a healthy way to resolve differences and solve problems.
Relate: 
Two students gave speeches about gun control -- one student advocating more, the other student totally opposed to it. But both students agreed that the number of Americans killed by guns was too high. So when they shifted the focus to “how can we reduce gun deaths?”, each made arguments the other side could analyze and respond to with a common goal in mind.

Reasoning - noun.
Define: The process of thinking about or understanding something logically, including all the facts and evidence that you’ve learned.
Example: 
Often, we have a gut reaction to an idea or proposition, but when we apply reasoning we think it through more deeply than we did with our initial reaction.
Relate: 
In a speech, you might appeal to reasoning to convince an audience of your argument. For example, I would guess that most of us believe people deserve a second chance in life. Allowing ex-felons to vote after they have completed their sentence allows them a second chance to be responsible citizens.”

Deductive Reasoning.
Define: A form of reasoning that works from general information down to a specific conclusion. It uses a three step process: general premise, minor premise and specific conclusion.
Example: 
All successful business people are interested in making money (general premise). Bill Gates is a successful business person (minor premise). Although he does a lot of charitable things with his wealth, Bill Gates is still interesting in making lots of money (specific conclusion).
Relate: 
The beauty of a deductive argument is that the conclusion is pretty much undeniable if the audience accepts the major and minor premises.

Inductive Reasoning.
Define: A form of reasoning that uses specific pieces of information to come to a general conclusion.
Example: 
Crimes are often solved by examining individual pieces of evidence to see the big picture and determine what occurred. Or, telling a doctor your specific symptoms may allow them to determine your illness. 
Relate: 
If you were arguing against the death penalty, telling your audience about three different people who were found not guilty after spending years and years on death row after a false conviction might be a way to make an inductive argument about the possibility of innocent people being executed.

Causal Reasoning.
Define: A form of reasoning that explains a cause/effect relationship, or showing that one set of circumstances causes something else to happen.
Example: 
The average annual salary for people with less than a high school diploma is about $25,600. For people with a high school diploma, the annual salary jumps to $35,200. With a Bachelor’s Degree, the average salary goes to $59,100. It seems logical that getting a higher education leads to more income.
Relate: 
Be careful not to over-generalize in your speeches. Sometimes there are several causes, or major and minor causes, rather than just one cause. Claiming that school uniforms caused a change in discipline problems in school, without taking into account other changes in school policy, might mislead your audience.

Sign Reasoning.
Define: A form of reasoning based on one thing indicating, or being a sign, that something else is probably true.
Example: 
Suppose you suspect that your significant other might be cheating on you -- what signs did you notice? They might not indicate a cause/effect relationship, but they are enough to indicate that you are probably right.
Relate: 
In a speech regarding  the need to address climate change, pointing out the frequency and intensity of hurricanes Harvey, Irma and Maria, along with the melting of glaciers, as signs of significant changes in our climate.

Analogical Reasoning.
Define: The use of comparisons, or analogies, in reasoning.
Example: 
One of the moons of Jupiter, Europa, appears to have liquid water, perhaps enough to form lakes and oceans which are pushed and pulled by gravity. Since this is  much like Earth, scientists think there could be life on Europa.
Relate: 
In your speeches, you will need to use analogies that the audience will accept. If you want to recommend a new program or policy at your college, can you find similar colleges that have done the same thing? Making the comparison to your old high school will probably not be acceptable.

Fallacious Reasoning.
Define: Faulty reasoning that is based on a fallacy, or incorrect or misleading idea.
Example: 
The fallacy that women are not good at business or administration created a 'glass ceiling' that is constantly being challenged.
Relate: 
Fallacies often 'sound good if you say them fast.' But you must make every effort to eliminate them from your speeches. This will not only enhance your ethos, but will make your arguments stronger and more persuasive. 

Module 13 - Technology and Public Speaking

Venture capitalist Steve Jurvetson gives a TED

talk on rocketry. [13]​


Presentations Aid.
Define: Presentational aids are tools speakers use to better communicate their message. Presentation aids can improve an audience’s understanding of the message, improve an audience’s retention of the message, increase audience engagement, and enhance the speaker’s credibility.
Example: 
Common types of presentation aids include: objects or models, flip charts, handouts, visual images (maps, diagrams, cartoons, photographs, art), graphs, flow charts, audio (sound bites, music, quotes), video clips, slideshows 
Relate: When deciding on what presentation aids to use in your speech, be sure to consider the location, size of the audience, expectations regarding professionalism, and what would best help you communicate the main purpose of your speech.

Asynchronous - adj.
Define: Computer-mediated communication that occurs intermittently over a period of time. When people communicate asynchronously online, they are communicating from different locations at different times using tools like blogs, discussion boards, or digital recordings.
Example:
You could create a video of yourself presenting and post the video online via YouTube for others to view when they chose. Common asynchronous communication tools include discussion boards, blogs, and video recordings.
Relate: 
We often communicate  asynchronously in online classes. Common asynchronous communication tools include discussion boards, blogs, and video recordings. 

Synchronous - adj.
Define: Occurring at the same time; in real time. A synchronous, or real time, online presentation is delivered directly to an audience gathered online at the same time, but located remotely.
Example: A speaker could present to a small group of people attending an online meeting using a web conferencing tool like Adobe Connect, Zoom, or Google Hangouts.
Relate: 
Synchronous online presentations have many similarities to in-person presentations, except for one key difference—the audience and the speaker are not located in the same room.

Computer-Mediated Communication.
Define: Human communication that occurs through the use of two or more electronic devices. Many face-to-face communication characteristics are not available within computer mediated communication.
Example: When people communicate online via instant-messaging or social networking services, they are using computer-mediated communication.
Relate: Computer-mediated communication occurs in a variety of formats like text messages, instant-messaging, email, communicating via social networking services like Facebook, Twitter, SnapChat, Instagram, and more.

Naturalness - noun.
Define: Genuineness; The ability of the speaker to communicate in an authentic manner and decrease ambiguity.
Example: 
Naturalness can be a challenge in computer-mediated communication because online interactions tend to lack immediacy, include less nonverbal communication, provide less opportunities for feedback, and experience increased technological difficulties. 
Relate: 
When you deliver an online presentation, it is important to maximize the advantages of the technology you are using while decreasing communication ambiguity. 

Social Presence.
Define: Social presence is the ability of a speaker to use computer-mediated communication to develop an interpersonal connection with an online audience.  Social presence involves the extent to which the communication channel conveys the 'presence' of both the speaker and the audience and recreates the characteristics of in-person communication.
Example: 
For example, if a speaker decides to present online using a podcast, the audience is able to hear the speaker’s words and tone of voice, but would not be able to see any of the presenter’s facial expressions.
Relate: 
It is up to the speaker to engage the audience and make every effort to create a more personal experience. For example, when giving an online presentation, you can add a mirror and/or photos of people around your computer to remind yourself that you are presenting to real people even though your message is being recorded by a camera.

Vocal Variety.
Define: Online speakers must learn to use their voices effectively and include vocal variety (a speaker’s use of tone, pitch, rate and volume).
Example: 
For example, imagine you are participating in a webinar. It helps to stand up when recording, and use body, hand, and facial gestures as you talk on the phone or Internet, even though no one can see you. Perhaps even set up a mirror to watch yourself talk! Your voice will naturally include more vocal variety and come alive.
Relate: 
You do not want your audio recording to sound like you are reading your presentation word-for-word, you want it to sound conversational and natural.

Presentation Management Software.
Define: Presentation management software often includes tools for designing and using slides, as well as tools for preparing and using speaking notes.
Example: 
There are several types of helpful software for preparing, delivering, and sharing computer-mediated presentations (PowerPoint, Prezi, PowToon are a few examples).
Relate: 
If your device does not already have presentation management software, you can download packages from a trusted source on the Internet like Microsoft, Apple, or Google.

Local Storage.
Define: The space used to store files on your computer, tablet, or smartphone.
Example: 
An example of local storage is a hard drive located within a computer, tablet, or cellphone. Most computers come with 250-2000 GB of local storage.  Tablets and smartphones typically come with considerably less, storage, typically between 8 and 64 GB.
Relate: 
If you don’t have enough storage (local or remote), you will not be able to keep an online presentation you’ve recorded. 



 Module 14 - Effective Word Selection 

Pick your words carefully. They make a

difference. [14]​


Channel - noun.
Define: The means by which the message is being sent or delivered.
Example: 
Would it be more appropriate to deliver a break-up speech to a significant other in person rather than sending a text? Of course. 
Relate: 
The channel you choose should be based on the message, the receiver, and the context surrounding the message. In the workplace, email is an appropriate channel to others. Your mother may prefer a phone call. 

Denotative Meaning.
Define: Commonly accepted meaning of a word, the dictionary definition.
Example: 
Bomb - an explosive device. That’s easy, right?
Relate: 
You will often want to provide the denotative or dictionary meaning of a word you’re using in a speech - especially if you think some in your audience will be unfamiliar with the term. Always make it a point to define any unusual or difficult concepts and terms for your audience. 

Connotative Meaning.
Define: A more personalized definition of a word often including slang and idioms. 
Example: 
So the dictionary tells us the denotative definition of “bomb” is an explosive device, but if you look up the slang definition, it could also mean a number of things including a failure, “He totally bombed his final exam.” If you can remember WAY back, you may recall at one time the word “bomb” was being used to mean “the best” or “excellent” as in “That movie was the bomb.” See how different each connotative meaning can be? No wonder language is confusing!
Relate: 
As the example shows, the word “bomb” doesn’t necessarily have the same meaning at all times. Your audience may be able to figure out the meaning within a given context, but it is critical that you define connotative terms for them. And avoid slang. It just gets confusing.

Frame of Reference.
Define: The context in which an audience can relate to, recall, or understand your topic, your examples, or your experiences.
Example: 
Using jokes, puns, or referencing the latest meme in your speech may not be your wisest course of action - unless you take the time to explain it. While you may assume everyone in your audience knows what you’re talking about, some may not. Without that common frame of reference, some listeners will not be able to make the connection.
Relate: 
Unless you’ve experienced the same events or grew up in the same time frame, your frame of reference will be different. Cultural differences have a great deal to do with our frame of reference as well. Referencing something your audience can’t relate to is wasted effort.

Inflammatory Language.
Define: Language used to stir emotions, to incite anger, to create fear and, often, violence.
Example: 
Protesters typically have a chant, or a few words they’ve chosen, to express themselves and to highlight their cause. “Hell no, we won’t go” or “Silence is compliance.” Effective. Point taken. But what if the chant was “Kill, kill, kill”? Wait, what? Or “Burn it to the ground”? These seem to take the rhetoric to a new level, don’t they? That is not to say that the crowd would actually act on these chants, but it could certainly inflame some protesters to violence. 
Relate: 
As a speaker, choose your words wisely. Express anger and outrage - that’s your right. But focus on powerful and persuasive words - not inflammatory ones.

Inclusive/Gender-Neutral Language.
Define: Language that avoids the use of certain expressions or words that might be considered to exclude particular groups of people.
Example: 
During a classmate’s speech, you hear words that seem to exclude, such as mankind or man-made. The wording may not have been intended to exclude, your classmate just may not have really thought through their word choices. But using inclusive language isn’t difficult. Swap out mankind for humanity. Use hand-made rather than man-made. Simple swaps can make a world of difference in how you’re perceived.
Relate: 
Always strive to use inclusive language. That can include the pronouns you use, the labels you apply, even the adjectives you utilize. Be culturally sensitive and choose examples that can apply to all of your classmates - not just some of them.

Slang - noun.
Define: Specialized language whose primary purpose is to keep talk private and to create shortcuts for communication.
Example: 
Your friend is giving a speech to the class about online dating. It’s funny and informative, but you notice a few of your classmates seem confused. Your friend is using quite a few acronyms and probably a few terms some listeners don’t recognize in the context of dating such as IRL and 'ghosting'. Since confusion isn’t ever your goal as a speaker, we can assume that your friend forgot to consider the demographics of his audience when he prepared his speech.
Relate: 
We don’t recommend that you use slang in your speeches. Perhaps an occasional word is okay if the term has entered the mainstream of your culture and you feel reasonably sure most people recognize it. But why use a word that some might not understand when there are hundreds of other words out there to choose from?

Jargon - noun.
Define: Specialized language for the workplace that is used and understood by a select group.
Example: 
Just watch any crime drama or medical show of your choice. You’ll hear plenty of examples of jargon. A GSW to the chest? That patient is going to need help STAT! 
Relate:
Jargon is much like slang except that you will almost exclusively find jargon in a workplace. Medical personnel, military members, and other work groups use jargon. Much like slang, the problem with jargon is that only a select group understand the language so you want to avoid using it in speeches. If you do use it, make sure to define the terms for your audience.

Over-the-top Vocabulary.
Define: Using words that the average listener may not understand in order to impress the audience.
Example:
For example, if you started a speech saying "Today I’m going to exposit on an egregious conundrum seen in many dystopian societies." - Say what? 
Relate: 
Over-the-top vocabulary sounds like a good thing, right? But using big words that your audience may not understand may backfire. If you’re using terms that your audience doesn’t understand, they’re likely to become confused and stop listening.

Concrete Words.
Define: Choosing words, typically nouns, that provide specific details rather than those that are vague and ambiguous.
Example: 
Will your audience have a clearer picture of your pet if you say pet, dog, or toy poodle? Here’s another example: Food, dinner, or chili? One word gives me a vague idea that you ate something. The use of the word chili tells me exactly what it was.
Relate: 
Be as specific as possible. Why use a vague, broad term when you can tell us exactly what you’re referring to? Audiences will connect to a speech that uses specific and descriptive words.

Imagery.
Define: Using language that is visually descriptive in order to appeal to the listener’s physical senses.
Example: "
My friend’s uncle is what I would call rich; I mean he’s as rich as King Midas in the Greek myth, right? Everything he touches doesn’t literally turn to gold, but he does have a knack for making money. He even has a gold toilet. Can you image that? A shiny golden toilet in his bathroom that’s larger than my entire apartment…”
Relate: 
Use comparison to clarify for your audience. Similes and metaphors help the audience by giving them something to compare a word or concept to.



Module 15 - Nonverbal Communication

MLB Umpire John Tumpane [15]​


Nonverbal Communication​​.
Define: Elements of speech, aside from the words themselves, that transmit meaning.
Example: 
Although the audience didn’t say anything, it was clear from their glazed eyes and slouched postures that they were bored by the lecture
Relate: 
Nonverbal communication is mostly body language. Facial expressions, posture, and gestures are all a part of nonverbal. Since your audience will rarely speak out during your speech, be especially aware of their nonverbal signals. That’s your means of gauging their interest and level of engagement.

Proxemics​​ - noun.
Define: Messages sent through the use of personal space.
Example: 
How do you typically save a seat for a friend? Do you put your jacket or backpack in the seat next to you? That simple act sends the message that this seat is 'saved,' doesn’t it? No words are required. Message received.
Relate: 
Some individuals like more personal space than others; we all differ in how much distance we prefer from those around us. So while some audience members may be okay with you standing right beside their chairs while you speak, others would feel crowded by your invasion of their space.

Locomotion - noun.
Define: The act or power of moving from place to place.
Example: 
As you walk to the lectern for your speech, keep your head up and walk confidently. Such a simple act - walking. But that walk can determine your listeners’ first impressions of you.
Relate: 
You probably have bigger concerns as you head to the lectern than whether you are walking 'correctly.' We get it. But don’t discount that any observable movement sends your audience a nonverbal message about you. 

Fidget - verb​​.
Define: Unease or restlessness as shown by nervous movements.
Example: 
Do you have a friend who is constantly fidgeting? They may drum on the table with their fingers or swing one of their legs back and forth while waiting on a friend to show up. It’s simply restless energy but it sends a message of impatience or nervousness to observers.
Relate: 
There are a few things to avoid while you speak: Don’t shuffle your note cards. Don’t play with your jewelry. Don’t do any one thing over and over. These nervous habits convey to the audience your uncertainty or your anxiety. Don’t telegraph your nervousness through these simple movements.

Emblem - noun​​.
Define: A hand gesture that is commonly used and typically universally understood within a specific culture. 
Example: 
If someone asks how you’re doing and you respond with a thumb’s up gesture, most Americans will recognize that as your way of say, “I’m good.” 
Relate: 
Unfortunately, not all emblems have the same meaning in other cultures or places, so you’ll want to take care that your use of gestures is appropriate for all audience members. A thumb’s up, for example, in other cultures is seen as a rude, often crass, gesture that has an entirely different meaning.

Illustrator - noun​​.
Define: A gesture that is used in conjunction with verbal communication to describe or reinforce what the speaker is saying.
Example: 
A typical illustrator might be if you wanted to describe to your friends the huge package you received in the mail and you approximate its size with your hands. In essence, you’re telling them it was 'this big.'
Relate: 
Illustrators can work with your words to help your audience visualize what you’re talking about. These types of gestures are meaningful and are used to supply an additional visual element to your speech.

Adaptor - noun​​.
Define: Unintentional gestures that are repetitive, unconsciously done, and typically happen during moments of stress or uncertainty.
Example: 
If you continue to roll and unroll the sleeve of your shirt as you speak, you’re using an adaptor. It’s one thing to use that moment to adjust your sleeve if it’s become undone, but when you keep doing it over and over again - especially when it’s not needed - then it’s become a nervous habit rather than a necessary movement.
Relate: 
Unlike illustrators, which help us to better understand your words, adaptors serve no purpose other than revealing your nervousness. Become aware of any unnecessary movements you may make during your speech. If it’s not needed, try to stop doing it.

Adornment - noun​​.
Define: Something added to a person or thing to make it beautiful or attractive - a decoration or enhancement.
Example: 
In our society today, adornments are items such as jewelry, articles of clothing, and even tattoos and piercings. When women adorn themselves, they tend to call this 'accessorizing.' :-)
Relate: 
So why do we care what you look like when you give a speech? For one, you’ll need to adhere to your instructor’s dress code guidelines because that might impact your grade. But more importantly, you’ll want to dress - or adorn yourself - so that your audience sees you as well-kept and confident. That’s why we care - and you should, too.

Paralanguage - noun​​.
Define: Optional vocal effects (such as tone of voice) that accompany or modify words in order to communicate meaning.
Example: 
It’s not necessarily what you say; it’s how you say it. Think of the difference between yelling and whispering. We tend to associate yelling with anger or excitement. On the other hand, whispering is soft and is reserved for up-close communication. So it’s not what’s being said that’s the focus here, it’s how you’re saying it.
Relate: 
Adjusting your tone, volume, and pitch during a speech gives a bit of variety to your speech. Make your voice interesting because it's so much better than a monotone voice.

​​Tone - noun.
Define: A particular pitch or change in pitch that can alter the meaning of the actual words in a phrase or sentence.
Example: 
Ever heard your mother or grandmother say, “Don’t use that tone of voice with me”? Uh-oh. You probably sounded angry or disrespectful - whether your words were or not. It might not have been what was said; it was how it was said.
Relate: 
Typically when we think of a person’s tone, we most often think of the emotion being conveyed in their voice. Tone can be important in a speech as well. Most audiences won’t take kindly to a speaker who they feel speaks with an overbearing or angry tone. You may feel passionately about your topic, but your tone should never be aggressive or off-putting.

Pitch - noun​​.
Define: Variance in the highness or lowness of vocal sound.
Example: 
Ever heard a friend squeal when they’re suddenly frightened by something and that squeal is several octaves higher than their normal voice? Pitch can often be affected by emotions such as fear or excitement.
Relate: 
The main thing to keep in mind while delivering a speech is to vary your pitch. If you speak in the same pitch for too long, your voice becomes monotone - one tone only, right? That’s boring to listeners. Change up your tone a bit just to keep things interesting.

Rate of Speech​​.
Define: How quickly an individual speaks.
Example: 
Excited or frightened people tend to talk faster. How many times have you watched a character in a movie call 911 in a panic only to be told, “Slow down, sir. I can’t understand you”? 
Relate: 
It’s okay to adjust your speed for emphasis; just use a consistent speed overall. If you speak too quickly, your listeners may not be able to follow your speech. On the other hand, if you speak too slowly, they’ll be bored.

​​Contradiction - noun.
Define: An occurrence when a person’s nonverbal cues and verbal utterances don’t match.
Example: 
If your significant other says to you, “I love you,” then proceeds to slap you, there’s a very real contradiction there!
Relate: 
Avoid contradictions between your words and your body language as you speak. Your words may be on point, but if your body is sending the message that you’re nervous or unprepared, the audience will generally go with the nonverbal cues over the verbal ones.

Repetition - noun​​.
Define: A nonverbal gesture that reinforces a vocal utterance.
Example: 
If your significant other says to you, “I love you,” then proceeds to hug you, the hug then repeats or reinforces the spoken words - they go together logically.
Relate: 
Remember learning about the types of learners in an earlier module? Well, if your words are helpful for auditory learners, adding in repetition (gestures that reinforce your words) will be appreciated by your visual learners.

Complementing - verb​​.
Define: A nonverbal gesture that enhances a vocal utterance.
Example: 
During your speech you tell us that five people died in a horrible house fire recently. If you hold up your hand showing all five fingers as you speak, it adds to your words and emphasizes for us how many were killed.
Relate: 
These types of gestures clarify your meaning and add visual interest to your words.

Ethnocentrism​​  - noun.
Define: A belief or attitude that one’s own group is superior.
Example: “
Everybody knows that America is the democratic model for all other countries. I’m pretty sure listeners who hail from England, France, Spain and many other countries might disagree with, and even take offense from, that declaration, especially considering their countries were established well before the United States.
Relate: 
Be aware that some audience members may come from different cultural backgrounds. When you choose your topic, your examples, and even your words, it’s important to keep that in mind. Using diverse and multicultural examples will help keep your audience from all walks of life engaged.



Module 16 - Special Occasions Speeches

fortvalley.jpg
Fort Valley State University Spring 2017 Commencement Speech[1]

Nonverbal Communication​​.
Define: 
Example: 
Relate: 




[COMING SOON]
Module 17 - Supplemental Materials


xxx.
Define: 
Example:
Relate: 


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Image Sources

[1] Image courtesy of Free-Photos under CC0 1.0.

​[2] Image courtesy of Paul Thompson in the Public Domain.

​[3] Image courtesy of papalars under CC BY-ND 2.0.

​[4] Image courtesy of Prerana Jangam under CC0 1.0.

​[5] Image courtesy of Mass Communication Specialist 2nd Class Kilho Park in the Public Domain.

​[6] Image by Cesare Maccari in the Public Domain.

​[7] Image by Francis Barraud in the Public Domain.

​[8] Image courtesy of Senior Master Sgt. Thomas Meneguin, USAF in the Public Domain.

​[9] Image by Alexander Blaikley in the Public Domain.

​[10] Image courtesy of U.S. Army Photography in the public domain.

​[11] Image courtesy of the U.S Military in the Public Domain.

​[12] Image courtesy ofTracy Collins under CC BY-SA 2.0.

​[13] Image courtesy of Steve Jurvetson under CC BY 2.0.

​[14] Image courtesy of Robert Knudsen in the Public Domain.

​[15] Image courtesy of Keith Allison under CC BY-SA 2.0.