Effective Public Speaking
Effective Public Speaking

Effective Public Speaking

Lead Author(s): George Griffin and Contributors

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Designed to teach the skills and build the confidence your students need to become effective public speakers.

This content has been used by 6,007 students

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Key features in this textbook

Effective Public Speaking gives students the confidence and competence in preparing and presenting speeches with real student videos, a comprehensive glossary, up to five in-class activities per chapter, and a full chapter on controlling speech anxiety.
Using Bongo for Top Hat, students can practice their oral communication skills and get feedback from instructors or their peers.
Built-in assessment questions embedded throughout chapters so students can read a little, do a little, and test themselves to see what they know!

Comparison of Public Speaking Textbooks

Consider adding Top Hat’s Effective Public Speaking textbook to your upcoming course. We’ve put together a textbook comparison to make it easy for you in your upcoming evaluation.

Top Hat

George Griffin, Effective Public Speaking, Only one edition needed

McGraw-Hill

Stephen Lucas, The Art of Public Speaking, 12th Edition

Pearson

Beebe & Beebe, Public Speaking: An Audience-Centered Approach, 9th Edition

Pearson

Beebe & Beebe, Public Speaking Handbook, 5th Edition

Pricing

Average price of textbook across most common format

Up to 40-60% more affordable

Lifetime access on any device

$121.80

Hardcover print text only

$99.29

Hardcover print text only

$114.52

Hardcover print text only

Always up-to-date content, constantly revised by community of professors

Content meets standard for Introduction to Anatomy & Physiology course, and is updated with the latest content

In-Book Interactivity

Includes embedded multi-media files and integrated software to enhance visual presentation of concepts directly in textbook

Only available with supplementary resources at additional cost

Only available with supplementary resources at additional cost

Only available with supplementary resources at additional cost

Customizable

Ability to revise, adjust and adapt content to meet needs of course and instructor

All-in-one Platform

Access to additional questions, test banks, and slides available within one platform

Pricing

Average price of textbook across most common format

Top Hat

George Griffin, Effective Public Speaking, Only one edition needed

Up to 40-60% more affordable

Lifetime access on any device

McGraw-Hill

Stephen Lucas, The Art of Public Speaking, 12th Edition

$121.80

Hardcover print text only

Pearson

Beebe & Beebe, Public Speaking: An Audience-Centered Approach, 9th Edition

$99.29

Hardcover print text only

Pearson

Beebe & Beebe, Public Speaking Handbook, 5th Edition

$114.52

Hardcover print text only

Always up-to-date content, constantly revised by community of professors

Constantly revised and updated by a community of professors with the latest content

Top Hat

George Griffin, Effective Public Speaking, Only one edition needed

McGraw-Hill

Stephen Lucas, The Art of Public Speaking, 12th Edition

Pearson

Beebe & Beebe, Public Speaking: An Audience-Centered Approach, 9th Edition

Pearson

Beebe & Beebe, Public Speaking Handbook, 5th Edition

In-book Interactivity

Includes embedded multi-media files and integrated software to enhance visual presentation of concepts directly in textbook

Top Hat

George Griffin, Effective Public Speaking, Only one edition needed

McGraw-Hill

Stephen Lucas, The Art of Public Speaking, 12th Edition

Pearson

Beebe & Beebe, Public Speaking: An Audience-Centered Approach, 9th Edition

Pearson

Beebe & Beebe, Public Speaking Handbook, 5th Edition

Customizable

Ability to revise, adjust and adapt content to meet needs of course and instructor

Top Hat

George Griffin, Effective Public Speaking, Only one edition needed

McGraw-Hill

Stephen Lucas, The Art of Public Speaking, 12th Edition

Pearson

Beebe & Beebe, Public Speaking: An Audience-Centered Approach, 9th Edition

Pearson

Beebe & Beebe, Public Speaking Handbook, 5th Edition

All-in-one Platform

Access to additional questions, test banks, and slides available within one platform

Top Hat

George Griffin, Effective Public Speaking, Only one edition needed

McGraw-Hill

Stephen Lucas, The Art of Public Speaking, 12th Edition

Pearson

Beebe & Beebe, Public Speaking: An Audience-Centered Approach, 9th Edition

Pearson

Beebe & Beebe, Public Speaking Handbook, 5th Edition

About this textbook

Lead Authors

George Griffin, Professor of SpeechKeiser University

George Griffin earned his degrees at the University of West Florida and Auburn University. He has been teaching college, business seminars and workshops for over 30 years, while still doing public speaking engagements for non-profit organizations. Currently, he is serving as the Professor of Speech at Keiser University, Orlando, and as Adjunct Professor at Stetson University. George is also the author of “STAGE FRIGHT! A Student-Friendly Guide to Managing the Jitters.”

Contributing Authors

Wade CorneliusNew Mexico State University

Kathryn DederichsUniversity of St. Thomas

Morgan GintherInstructional Designer at Texas A & M

Luke GreenSt. Cloud Technical and Community College

María Elena BermúdezGeorgia State University

Daryle NaganoEl Camino College

Wendy YarberryFlorida State College at Jacksonville

Allen DavisIndiana University

Jasmine RobertsOhio State University

Krista MacDonaldDoña Ana Community College

Explore this textbook

Read the fully unlocked textbook below, and if you’re interested in learning more, get in touch to see how you can use this textbook in your course today.

Chapter 5: Structuring and Outlining Your Speech

"Cicero Denounces Catiline" by Cesare Maccari. The Romans were one of the first civilizations to develop public speaking styles and techniques. Their style was heavily influenced by Cicero, who is depicted as the speaker in the above painting. [1]


“Organizing is what you do before you do something, so that when you do it, it is not all mixed up.”    - A. A. Milne

Table of Contents

Learning Goals

  • Identify the major organizational patterns.
  • Create a speech outline.
  • Transition effectively from point to point within a speech.
  • Properly format a speech outline.
  • Understand the different uses of a speech outline.
  • Learn to write speeches “inside out” rather than “top down.”

Introduction

Carson walks into his biology class, and up on the board there is an outline of what the professor is going to cover. The professor starts class and erases the outline as she begins with a current news story that has nothing to do with what is being taught. A couple minutes later the professor dives into a difficult lesson and then proceeds to go off topic ten minutes later talking about a personal story. This happens several times throughout the class, and Carson walks out feeling as though he has been on a roller- coaster ride and didn’t learn much at all. Much like Carson’s experience of a disorganized class, if you don’t organize a speech properly and have an easy-to- follow organizational pattern you can create confusion for your audience. Having a well-organized speech is a major part of gaining and keeping your audience’s attention, as well as creating and delivering a solid speech.

Having a proper speech outline can benefit you in several ways. Outlines help you organize your ideas into categories and figure out which order will help your speech to flow best. When you are finished with your outline, it can make a great tool to use to deliver your speech, instead of small and flimsy note cards in front of the audience, especially if you have access to a lectern for your notes. Finally an outline will help immensely if you plan to create a PowerPoint or Prezi presentation; each of the points can easily transition to slides on these presentational aids. Outlines can also help you with mobility, since you are able to jump around to different points on an outline, something you can’t do if you are reading off a manuscript.

A well-organized speech will also help your audience understand and remember your message better by breaking up your information into manageable parts, rather than a large mass of facts and figures. Finally, the audience will consider you more competent and trustworthy if you are well organized and structured, thus improving your ethos (see Chapters 8 and 10).

This chapter will cover:

  •  Types of organizational patterns
  •  How to format your outline
  •  Types of outlines that you can use to structure your speech
  •  Transitions, how to move from point to point smoothly in your speech
  •  Speech outline examples


Q5.01

Having a well-organized speech can help you keep your audience's attention.

A

True

B

False


A good speech is like a smooth plane ride. Your introduction is your take off; this is where you put the most energy into your speech. The body of the speech is like your cruising altitude, if you have a smooth takeoff and set up your speech well you should have a smooth “flight”. Finally, your conclusion is your landing. You don’t want to forget to land the plane! You want to bring your speech to a nice smooth ending using the strategies that were covered in Chapter 3. So let’s take a look first at the different ways that you can order the main points of your speech.


Organizational Patterns

A good time to start organizing your speech is after you have collected your supporting material and research. Once you have gone through that information, you will have a good idea of which type of organizational pattern will work best for your speech. It is also possible for you to blend two or even more types of organizational patterns within your speech. Let’s take a look at five of the most common organizational patterns.

The chronological or temporal organizational pattern is a great fit for speeches that explain a process, such as a “how to” or “demonstrative” speech, as well as speeches that follow a natural timeline, such as the history of rock and roll. This pattern is almost always used for an informative speech rather than a persuasive speech. Basically, such a speech follows a time order, and the main points of your speech must follow that order if the speech is to be successful. If you are telling your audience how to bake chocolate chip cookies, you have to follow the recipe in a specific order. If you are talking about Michael Jordan’s career, you might start with him getting cut from his high school basketball team, followed by his college success as a North Carolina Tar Heel, progressing to his NBA accomplishments and so on to the end of his career. Watch the following student set up a speech that uses chronological order.

Click here to see the script for Video 5.01.

Q5.02

What would be a good example of a speech topic for a chronological organizational pattern?


The spatial organizational pattern (which is based on the word “space,” as in location or direction) is used when your speech topic is explaining a physical area or arrangement; you end up organizing your speech based on how the area is laid out. Let’s say you are giving a speech on Disney World and you want to talk about what order the audience members should visit the different worlds in the park. You can use this pattern to explain how the park is laid out. Another great example is a speech on the planets in our solar system. You can start with the closest to the Sun and work your way out. Again, this pattern is almost always used in informative speeches rather than persuasive speeches. One final note, the spatial organization can also be used in “sections” of something. For instance, if you are giving a speech on a court case that has gone from a local trial, to a state trial and on to the Supreme Court, spatial organization can work well.

Click here to see the script for Video 5.02.

The topical or categorical organizational patterns allow the topic to dictate the order of your speech. You begin by breaking the main speech topic into logical subtopics that you can put into a comfortable pattern. This organizational pattern is best used when the order of your main points is flexible. If you are giving a speech on coffee and your three main points are dark, medium, and light roasted coffee,  you can pick the order that will fit both you and your audience best. After you have done the research for your topic, and a natural order of your main points arises – one that feels right for you as the speaker as well as for your audience as listeners – that is using topical organization. You may choose to start with your weakest main point and work your way up to your strongest point (known as the “climax order”) for one audience or occasion, then rearrange your speech to start with the strongest point first and work your way to the weakest point (known as the “anti-climax order”) for another audience. As opposed to the other organizational patterns presented here, with the topical pattern you have the freedom to rearrange the order without damaging the presentation. This pattern is flexible enough to use in informative, persuasive, or virtually any other type of speech.


Click here to see the script for Video 5.03.

Q5.03

Give two examples of a topic where the flexible order of the main points, or using topical organization would fit.


The final two types of organizational patterns that will be explained are typically used in persuasive speeches.

The cause/effect or causal organizational pattern is great for speeches that show a relationship between something that has happened and its affect on the world. For instance, if you are giving a speech on global warming, you would start your main points with the causes of global warming, such as ozone depletion. You would then talk about the effect it has on our climate. On a smaller scale, you could look at rising taxes in your community and look at the causes, such as inflation and then what effects those rises will have on the community. The cause/effect pattern could also be used in an informative speech to explain a historical event, such as the American Civil War. You could explain the major and minor causes, followed by the effect, or results of the war.


Click here to see the script for Video 5.04.

The problem/solution is the final organizational pattern we will look at, and can only be used in a persuasive speech. In this organization, you discuss a problem and then offer recommended solutions. By its very nature, this must be a persuasive speech because the problem hasn’t been solved yet, and you are trying to convince the audience to support your recommended solution. You can organize your speech a couple of different ways with this organizational pattern. Please look at the following diagrams that explain how each can be beneficial depending on your speech topic.

  • I. Discuss problem
  • II. Give solution #1
  • III. Give solution #2

____________________________________________________________________________

  • I. Discuss problem #1
  • II. Give solution #1
  • III. Discuss problem #2
  • IV. Give solution #2

____________________________________________________________________________

  • I. Discuss problem #1
  • II. Discuss problem #2
  • III. Discuss problem #3
  • IV. Give solution

*Some other variations on the basic problem/solution pattern will be explained in Chapter 10, on Writing Persuasive Speeches.

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Formatting an Outline

The key to having a well-organized presentation is the outline. Creating an outline for your speech will help you visualize what the final product will look like and how each of the pieces of your speech fit together. When it all comes together for you, it will be much easier to help it come together for your listeners. But how do you start to design, or format, an outline? Formatting your outline is a quite simple process. The most common way to format an outline is to use the Roman numeral outline format. The introduction, main points and conclusion all begin with a Roman numeral, then sub-points start with capital letters. Breaking the speech down further alternates with numbers and lowercase letters. One pitfall students often encounter is having only one sub-point. You can never have just one sub-point; for every A, there must be a B, or for every 1. there must be a 2. Imagine if you had a cookie and you broke it down into smaller pieces, could you just have one half? No, there must be at least two or more. So when you break a point down into sub-points remember the cookie, you always need at least two sections. However, don’t have more than five main points in your speech. More than five main points will be begin to confuse and overwhelm your audience.

Q5.04

There must be at least [math]\text{____}[/math] subpoints when breaking down a point in an outline?

A

1

B

2

C

3

D

4


A helpful hint in the outlining process is when you develop your preview statement at the end of your introduction (see Chapter 4), you are telling the audience what your main points are going to be. Those main points then become the following Roman numerals of the outline. This is illustrated in the example below. Please note that the following is just an example, and that you should allow the information that you have gathered about your topic to dictate how you will organize your speech.


Types of Outlines

Each person will outline their speech differently based on the information that has been gathered, and in what order they want to present their information. Will chronological order work best for your speech? Then start organizing your main points according to a time line. Does topical seem like a better fit for this speech? Start breaking the information into logical subtopics. Would problem/solution work best? Start putting all the problem information together, followed by all the recommended solution information, and so on.

After that process has been completed, you can pick which type of outline you would like to use for your speech, a sentence outline or a keyword outline . A sentence outline will have an almost word-for-word script of your speech, but it will be broken up into your main points and sub-points. A keyword outline will have just that, keywords to let the speaker know where they are in their speech, but they will rely more on memory to fill in the details of the speech. Let’s take a look at each of the following types more closely, and view some examples of each type as well.

A full sentence outline states each part of the speech in a sentence format. It is much more detailed and can help a speaker during the delivery if they frequently forget words throughout the speech. For this type of outline, you could take a manuscript of a speech and break it up into an introduction, body and conclusion without changing any words from the manuscript. If this type of outline is used during the delivery of the speech, you would have a word-for-word speech written out in front of you. This can be a good choice if you have a speaking situation where a manuscript-delivery style is appropriate (see Chapter 11). Another form of full-sentence outlines is simply using full sentences instead of keywords, as shown in the example below, which may not be a full manuscript, but uses full sentences.

A keyword outline or phrase outline will use only keywords of each part of the speech to write an outline. Using the same method as above, if you took a manuscript of a speech and just took the keywords from each sentence and divided those up into the introduction, body and conclusion, you would end up with a keyword outline. If this type of outline is used for the delivery of the speech, it is a wonderful way to enhance your physical delivery, increase eye contact, and gestures, along with having the freedom to use your own words and allow the atmosphere to dictate the flow of your speech.

Q5.05

Explain the difference between a key word outline and a sentence outline.

Let’s take a look at how the same speech can be broken up into the two different types of outlines that were just explained.

Full-Sentence and Keyword Outline ExamplesTransitions


Transitions

Something you may have noticed in the above examples, but haven’t yet seen an explanation for, were transition statements. Transition statements allow a speaker to move smoothly from point to point within their speech. If you are giving a speech on how to make homemade lemonade, and you are moving from ingredients section of your speech to the preparation section, you would put in a statement, such as “now that we have discussed the ingredients, we are ready to begin making our lemonade.” As you can see, this statement brought the audience with you as you moved to a new point, rather than just diving into how to make the lemonade. Three common approaches to transition statements are:

1. Internal Summaries: Much like in the conclusion of the speech, when we summarize the main ideas, we can do a brief summary of the main point we have just finished: “So now that we have finished gathering all our materials...”

2. Internal Previews: Similar to a preview statement early in the speech to tell the audience what our main point will be, we can give a quick preview of the next part of the speech as we go along: “Now let’s take a look at how to create a beautiful cover.”

3. Sign Posting: This is the verbal equivalent of holding up a sign to tell everyone where we are in the speech. It doesn’t require a lot of planning or creativity, it just announces the next section of the speech: “My first main point is…” “Now my second main point is…”


Q5.06

What makes an effective transition? Are there some types of speeches that lend themselves to one type of transition as opposed to another?


As you recall from above, a speech was compared to a plane ride. You can equate transitions to avoiding turbulence. Together with practicing your speech in advance, transitions can help your speech have a smooth and polished sound, as well as allowing your audience to follow you as you progress throughout your speech.

When you are outlining your speech, you want to make sure that it flows well, and that you avoid choppy transitions. Not connecting your points with a transition statement can confuse the audience. They may not be able to follow your thought process, become confused, and eventually stop listening. Transitions allow a speaker to move smoothly between two very different points. Watch the video below to see how transitions can impact a speech.

Click here to see the script for Video 5.05.

Outline Template

Introduction

A. Attention Getter: Something that grabs the attention of the audience. (Refer to our list of 13 attention-getting techniques from Chapter 4.)

B. Purpose Statement (Remember to tie the audience into your attention-getter or into your purpose statement somehow.)

C. Preview of Main Points

1. First main point

2. Second main point

3. Third main point

I. Statement of the first main point.

 A. Idea of development or support for the first main point

  1. Support material (ex: statistics, quotation, etc.- cite source)

  2. Support material (ex: statistics, quotation, etc. - cite source)

 B. More development or support

  1. Support material (ex: statistics, quotation, etc.- cite source)

  2. Support material (ex: statistics, quotation, etc. - cite source)

 C. More development if needed

II. Statement of second main point. Do not use a source in this statement.

 A. Idea of development or support for the second main point

  1. Support material (ex: statistics, quotation, etc. - cite source)

  2. Support material (ex: statistics, quotation, etc. - cite source)

 B. More development or support

  1. Support material (ex: statistics, quotation, etc. - cite source)

  2. Support material (ex: statistics, quotation, etc. - cite source)

 C. More development if needed

III. Statement of third main point. Do not use a source in this statement.

 A. Idea of development or support for the third main point

  1. Support material (ex: statistics, quotation, etc. - cite source)

  2. Support material (ex: statistics, quotation, etc. - cite source)

 B. More development or support

  1. Support material

  2. Support material

 C. More development if needed

IV. Conclusion

A. Review of Main Points:

 1. Restate your first main point.

 2. Restate your second main point.

 3. Restate you third main point.

B. Restate or reinforce the purpose.

C. Closure: Develop a creative closing line that will give the speech a sense of finality.

Writing Speeches “Inside-Out” Rather than “Top Down”

Many beginning speech students start out using the “Top Down” method of speech writing. In other words, they try to think “what should my first line be…” then their second line and third line, and keep going until they write the last line of the speech. They start at the beginning, and end at the ending. Sounds logical, doesn’t it?

Well, what if there were an even easier way to write speeches, so that they flowed better, stayed focused, and ended with a stronger finished product?

There is a simple five-step formula to write speeches from the inside out, rather than top down – to start in the middle of the speech and work your way up and down at the same time.

Step 1. Brainstorming and research: Once you’ve decided on your topic, grab a notebook, legal pad, laptop, or however you make notes to yourself. Start brainstorming by writing down absolutely anything that pops into your mind that you might mention in your speech. Don't stop to develop or analyze, don't filter or censor your ideas; just make a full list of possible ideas that you think of. Now, start researching to find even more things to add to your list. Any stories, quotes, statistics, whatever and add them to the list until you have a big long list of information.


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Step 2. Grouping: Start sifting through the list to find items that naturally go together. Figure out how many naturally-forming groups you can come up with. Those "groups" will soon evolve into main points and sub-points, but don't worry about that just yet. If some things don't go with anything else, no problem, and if some groups have ten items and other groups have two, no problem. Identify what the things in the group have in common, and label each group according to that common factor. For example, on your grocery-shopping list you may be planning to buy tomatoes, grapes, bananas, and lettuce. They all have something in common, so they would all go into a group labeled “produce.”

Step 3. Prioritizing: Since the groups are about to become main points, and you can only have two to five main points in a speech, you need to start paring down the number of groups. That might mean consolidating, and it might mean cutting out something that you really wanted to include, but that's just not as important as other groups/main points. Once you have reduced the groups down to two, three, four or five, start cutting some of the the sub-points to a manageable amount. (Try to have between two and five sub-points for each main point.) It should hurt just a little during this process, as you are cutting out stuff that you really wanted to talk about, but that just aren't important enough to make the final cut. The last part of prioritizing is to organize the main points in the order you want to deliver them. (Refer to the five organizational patterns you just learned about to determine the best order.) At this point, the body of the speech has now been established. The rest is easy.

Step 4. Purpose Statement and Preview Statement: This is the easiest step of all. Since the body of the speech is already organized, the purpose statement and preview are already done – you just need to reorganize them and write them in. Step back and ask yourself, "What kind of speech is this? Informative. And what is the topic? The life of Bob Marley. Okay, then the purpose statement will simply be, "Today I am going to be informing you about the life of Bob Marley."Easy! Now, what are the main points (the former groups)? List them in order to develop your preview statement. "First, we'll look at Bob Marley's early years, then we'll examine his music, and finally, we'll talk about his lasting legacy." Step 4 pretty much writes itself.

Step 5. Introduction and Conclusion: It seems obvious and natural to write the conclusion now, since we may be summarizing what is in the body of the speech during the conclusion. And naturally, that's a lot easier once you actually have the body of the speech organized. But why wait until now to write the introduction? First, it's easier to write it now. Once you know where the speech is going, it’s much easier to figure out how to lead the audience there. But there's another practical reason to wait. When you brainstormed and researched, you came up with a lot of material that didn't make it to the final speech. You also lost some things through grouping and prioritizing. Go back through all the leftovers in the scrap pile to see if there is a good anecdote, quote, statistic, etc., that didn't make the final speech, but might be a great attention-getter for your opening or a strong closer for the conclusion.

Q5.07

As an audience member, what types of cues might you notice from the speaker hinting at whether they wrote their speech top down or inside out? Would there be a noticeable difference between the two?


End of Chapter Checklist

After reading this chapter, you should be able to say to yourself:

  • I can identify the major organizational patterns.
  • I know how to create a speech outline.
  • I can transition effectively from point to point within a speech.
  • I can properly format a speech outline.
  • I understand the different uses of a speech outline.
  • I know what it means to write speeches “inside out” rather than “top down.”



Sources:

Beebe, Steven A. Beebe Public Speaking: An Audience-Centered Approach. N.p.: Pearson, 2014. Print.

“Demonstration Speech Sample Outline” Demonstration Speech Sample Outline. N.p., n.d. Web. 06 Dec. 2015.

Fassett, Deanna L. Student Workbook for Public Speaking: Speak from the Heart. N.p.: n.p., n.d. Print.

O'Hair, Dan, Hannah Rubenstein, and Robert A. Stewart. A Pocket Guide to Public Speaking. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2016. Print.

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Video Scripts

Video 5.01

Want to make a delicious dish that will make everyone in your family happy? Today I am going to show you how to make a delicious cheesy potato hotdish that has been in my family for years. First I am going to tell you what supplies you need to make the dish. Second I am going to tell you the ingredients you need to gather, and finally I am going to give you the step by step instructions on how to make the cheesy potato hotdish

Click here to return to video.


Video 5.02

Today I am going to walk you through the Magic Kingdom going from the most west land of Adventureland working our way east to Tomorrowland. In this speech I will be covering the lands to avoid the most crowds by heading left as you go through Adventure land then Frontierland, then on to Liberty Square and Fantastyland and finally ending in Tomorrowland.

Click here to return to video.


Video 5.03

Sleep, water and Tylenol. It sounds like the treatment for the common cold, right? Well, it’s what the CDC suggests to anyone who has the symptoms of the Zika Virus. So today I will be telling you about Zika Virus, the history behind it, the preventions, the risks and facts and a couple of other things along the way

Click here to return to video.


Video 5.04

How many of you have peered over a ledge and felt an almost inexplicable urge to jump, or almost felt someone pushing you over the ledge? You almost feel guilty for the thought right? Even if there is a loved one there, and you think of how easy it would be to push them off, right? You feel guilty for it. But what I want to explain today is called l’appel du vide. It is a French term that means the call to the void, and what it is is a natural phenomenon, it happens in everybody; it is a natural human tendency and it plays into our deepest psychological rooted fears. So what I want to talk about is some of the background research that has taken place with this, why humans react this way and even some of the methods of coping with this irrational fear.

Click here to return to video.


Video 5.05

My first point is priming, you are going to want to start by scuffing all the car paint, the original car paint off your car because it is going to give the primer a nice surface to stick to. You are going to want to use 400 grit sandpaper according to my dad, because that is going to give it nice deep scuffs without leaving permanent damage on the care

Click here to return to video.


Image Sources

[1] Image by Cesare Maccari in the Public Domain.

Chronological Organization
Arranged according to the order of time.
Temporal Organization
Temporal has many meanings outside the world of public speaking, such as earthly rather than spiritual, related to time rather than infinity, or even relating to time rather than space. In public speaking, however, we use temporal in its simplest meaning - arranged according to the order of time.
Demonstrative - adj
In this case, this simply means that you are doing a speech to demonstrate, or teach your audience how to do or make something.
Spatial Organization
Arranged according to physical location or direction.
Topical Organization
Taking the main topic of your speech and breaking it into smaller subtopics. The order in which you present them is based on what you believe will be most comfortable and effective for you and your audience.
Categorical Organization
This is another word that can mean many things outside of public speaking. For our purposes, it means the same thing as “topical.”